Mandelbrot set crop formation -
- a perfect representation of one of the most
complex shapes in mathematics. These intelligent symbols relating to the
development of fractal geometry perplexed, intrigued and delighted many
The crop circles
have so far defied scientific explanation. They have continually re-invented
themselves in order, it seems, to provoke scientific inquiry. Some unseen
intelligence appears to have a need to communicate with human beings, to
express itself in strange and spectacular ways, and it has become more talkative,
carving ever more incredible signs in the fields of the world.
Within the formations, the crops appear to be pushed
down by some invisible gentle force which has the capacity to create complex
patterns of bent vegetation. In authentic circles, this bent vegetation
is not broken or damaged and in many instances continues to grow.
How should we interpret these messages from the universe?
What significance do they hold for humanity? Crop circles are like treasure
chests - each holding unique and important information for humanity. The
journey is one of discovery. Just as with sacred geometry and other esoteric
principles, crop circles challenge the current world view of "reality"
simply because science is at odds to explain them.
Crop circle formations often appear in canola (oil seed
rape) fields. This plant has a consistency like celery. If the stalk is
bent more than about 45-degrees, it snaps apart. Yet, in a "genuine"
crop circle formation the stalks are often bent flat at 90-degrees. No botanist
or other scientist has been able to explain this, nor has it ever been duplicated
by a human being.
Many huge, complex and beautiful patterns are being
found swirled into crop fields around the world every year. Despite attempts
to dismiss them as the work of humans, some believe the evidence points
to a more exciting explanation. Whatever their source, these spectacular
designs often display very clear symbolism, scientific, esoteric and astronomical,
and demonstrate some extraordinary unexplained effects.
How many appear?
Around 250 crop designs around the world appear each
year on average. Several thousand have been documented since records began.
Where do they appear?
Crop circles are a global phenomenon, but predominantly
appear in the Northern Hemisphere with Southern England as the main centre
of activity, particularly Wiltshire.
When do they arrive?
Off-season formations have occurred, but most appear
during the three main summer months of any given country.
What crops do they appear in?
Any crop can be a potential target for the phenomenon:
wheat, barley and oilseed rape (canola), as the main crops grown, are the
most common in England, at least, but they have also been reported in rye,
oats, flax, peas, potatoes, sweet corn maize and many other mediums, including
rice paddy fields in Japan. Formations have also been found in wild grass
A Brief History of Crop Circles
When two retired English pranksters, Doug Bower and
Dave Chorley, claimed in 1991 to have invented the crop circle phenomenon
as a joke a decade or so earlier, they couldn't have been aware that almost
300 documented formations predated their alleged exploits.
Swirled into growing crops, these circular indentations
of carefully flattened stems looked at first like the result of freak whirlwinds.
Some were a few feet across, but others were the size of tennis courts.
It wasn't long before the appearance of symmetrical patterns and other unusual
variations began to throw the weather theories into doubt.
By the late 80's, rapidly increasing numbers and seemingly
evolving designs, still based largely on circles, had begun to capture the
public imagination. Intrigued by reports of glowing lights and other bizarre
phenomena associated with the circles, everyone from UFO buffs to eminent
scientists was trying to unravel the mystery.
In 1990, the arrival of 'pictograms', long symbolic
chains of circles, rectangles and rings gave the crop circles their place
in history. Newspapers and television channels eagerly reported these astonishing
patterns. But the claims of Doug and Dave and other supposed hoaxers soon
left the media disillusioned.
Despite this, crop formations continue to be discovered
in designs of growing sophistication and size which leave many convinced
that there is an unexplained force at work.
Theories and Evidence
There has been intense debate over the circles' origins.
Some believe they are communications from Extra-Terrestrials, pointing to
the many sightings and videos of aerial phenomena seen in connection with
formations. Others feel the lights may be the properties of an unknown natural
energy which produces complex ground patterns. Others still have cited everything
from Mother Earth to nature spirits being responsible.
Most other popular explanations for the crop circles
have revolved around human activity, either involving satellite technology
or, more usually, the simple actions of pranksters and landscape artists.
However, in demonstrations, human teams have struggled to reproduce designs
as geometrically complex as many seen in the fields or have taken many hours
to produce anything approaching them. Certain formations have been shown
to have appeared within very short periods of time and the geometrical calculation
and construction required for some simply could not be carried out in one
Some of the patterns have shown breathtaking symbolic
qualities. In 1994, several galaxy-shaped glyphs displayed a conjunction
of planets over the star constellation Cetus as it would be in April 2000,
and in 1995 an accurate diagram of the Earth's inner solar system was discovered.
Some shapes appear to denote dates and astronomical conjunctions, but others
remain obscure and are open to interpretation, seeming to reflect multi-cultural
Phenomena associated with crop circles
Work by laboratories on circle-affected crop has shown
biological changes taking place at a cellular level, suggesting the involvement
of microwave energy. Other physical tests have shown anomalies not yet replicated
by man-made experiments. Crop circles have the capacity to alter the local
electromagnetic field so that compasses cannot locate north, cameras, cellular
phones and batteries fail to operate, and aircraft equipment fails whilst
flying over formations.
Circular Stories, Facts and Figures
There are around two dozen eye-witness accounts of crop
circles forming. All describe similar events; an invisible force coming
out of nowhere in otherwise calm conditions and spinning the crops down
within seconds, usually with surprising violence - yet little damage is
found in the laid crop. Tornado-like funnels, light phenomena and high-pitched
whistling sounds have also been reported.