1AD - 1900 History of the World
Yes. It's a long read but well worth the
Reproduced with kind permission from Nathan
Decker..who has spent a great deal of time on this. I have double checked
Assassination of the radical Jesus, allegedly on Illuminati
orders; more Illuminoid trappings; an eclipse; an earthquake; visitors from
the sky roll away the stone from the sepulcher and liberate the crucified
Flavius Josephus, the noted Jewish historian of the
first century A.D., described giants as having "bodies so large and
countenances so entirely different from other men that they were surprising
to the sight and terrible to the hearing." And he adds that in his
day, the bones of the giants were still on display.
A cavern adjacent to the ruins of the "temple of
Apollo" in Pamukkale (formerly Hierapolis), built when the ancient
Grecian empire held sway in the area. Several strange disappearances have
surrounded the cavern as for back as ancient Grecian times. The Greek philosopher
Strabe (circa 63 BC - 24 AD) recorded that many animals who entered the
cavern never emerged, and also many people who went past the mouth of the
cave never returned. Only sorcerers in ancient times, who had apparently
made an alliance with the "gods of the underworld", would be able
to enter and would emerge glowing with a reddish aura.
The Key of Solomon, a book of incantations for invoking
demons, attributed to the authorship of Solomon, was in existence. Influenced
the Golden Dawn movement and was one of the sources of modern ritual magic.
Some people believed these were written by King Solomon himself, whereas
others believed they were written by demons and given to the king. Solomon
has been widely acclaimed as a great wizard in his time and he was a master
in the art of commanding demons. Some experts pretend that the many versions
all derive from an original written by the Rabbi Abognazar.
The great first-century pagan philosopher and physician
Apollonius of Tyana was said to have transported himself instantaneously
to Ephesus to treat sufferers from a plague.
According to Masonic tradition, Ormus started an order
in Alexandria having the "rose-cross" as symbol.
A "ship" was seen speeding across the Scottish
A disastrous fire sweeps through Rome. The Emperor Nero
blames the Christians. Persecution of both Christians and Jews erupts. Tradition
has it that Peter was crucified during these Neronic persecutions and buried,
eventually, under the site of the present altar of St. Peter's church.
May 21--From Flavius Josephe Jewish War Book CXI: "On
the 21st of May a demonic phantom of incredible size... for before sunset
there appeared in the air over the whole country chariots and armed troops
coursing through the clouds and surrounding the cities."
When a comet appeared, astrologers wondered if it would
mean the death of Emperor Vespasian. Vespasion, alluding to the term "long-haired
star" used for comets, joked that the comet must have been meant for
the Parthian King, who wore his hair long, not for himself, Vespasian, who
was bald. Despite his clever pun, Vespasian died within the year.
From medieval reporter Conrad Wolfhart: "When the
Roman emperor Agricola was in Scotland, wonderous flames were seen in the
skies over Caledon Wood, all one winter night. Everywhere the air burned,
and on many nights, when the weather was serene, a ship was seen in the
air moving fast."
From medieval reporter Conrad Wolfhart: "At sunset,
a burning shield passed over the sky at Rome. It came sparkling from the
west and passed over to the east."
Hero of Alexandria devises a primitive steam-engine.
Basilides, a "heresiarch" (Gnostic) of Alexandria
is supposed to have written twenty-four commentaries on the Gospels, wherein
he claimed that Jesus did not die on the cross and that a substitute, Simon
of Cyrene, took his place. The Koran held the same argument in the seventh
125 to 150
Simon Magus, Menander, Valentinus and others develop
Gnostic religious doctrines of esoteric knowledge (illumination). Simon
Magus was a contemporary of Jesus and has been called his most dangerous
rival. Clement I called him "God's left hand" and the counterpart
of Saint Paul. He found "wisdom" in a brothel in Tyre and preached
a Gnostic philosophy summed up in his work The Root of All. He has later
been called the founder of all Gnostic teachings.
Roman Mithraism competes with Christianity.
Yellow Turban Society subdues northern China, Triad
cult formed in opposition.
Mount Taupo in New Zealand erupts, Romans record 3 days
of global darkness.
"'The way was long, and as if enveloped in darkness,'
explains Chu Yan, a Chinese poet of the third century B.C. Chinese tradition
narrates the extraordinary adventure of Hou Yih, an engineer of the Emperor
Yao, who decided, 4,300 years ago, to go to the moon with a 'celestial bird.'
In the course of the flight, the bird indicated to the traveler the exact
movements of the rising, the apogee, and the setting of the sun. Hou Yih
thereafter explained that he 'sailed up the current of luminous air.' Could
this current have been the exhaust of a rocket? "'He no longer perceived
the rotary movement of the sun,' the narrator points out. Effectively, contemporary
astronauts have noted that, in space, it was not possible to discern the
diurnal passage of the sun. And what did the Chinese engineer observe on
the moon? He saw 'an horizon which appeared frozen.' To protect himself
from the glacial air, he built the 'Palace of the Great Cold.' His wife,
Chang Ngo, left to join him on the satellite, which she described as 'a
luminous sphere, brilliant as glass, of an enormous size, and very cold.'"
First book of the cabala, Sepher Yetzirah, compiled.
216 to 276
Life of Mani, the Illuminator, who founded Manicheism,
based on ideas from Judaism, Christianity, Zoroasterism, Gnosticism, etc.
The Holy Grail of the Last Supper kept in Aragón,
Spain, according to Catholic tradition.
Constantine and his army all beheld in the heavens a
luminous cross. He claimed to have been shown a cross on the Sun as a sign
from Christ that he would triumph over Maxentius.
> 320 >about
Constantine visits the Shrine at Delphi and leaves with
a prize collection of bronze statuary. He is one of a long line of Roman
plunderers of this sacred site. In spite of this, the Oracle continues to
reside at Delphi.
Council of Nicaea in which Christianity begins to rigidify.
The Book of Enoch, having been suppressed by the Church, was declared apocryphal
by St. Jerome. Eusebius, Bishop of Caeseria, sets out the list of New Testament
books still in use today. He also lists books which he considers "doubtful,"
such as the "Acts of Paul," "Revelation of Peter," "Gospels
of Peter, Thomas, Matthias," and many other ancient books. Constantine
orders Eusebius to have fifty Bibles made of vellum. The amount of vellum
required would have taken the skins of about 4500 animals. Some of these
Bibles still exist today in Leipzig, St. Catherine's Monastery in Sinai,
and London, in the British Museum.
The first major witch-hunt in the modern sense occurred
by order of the Roman emperor Valerian.
The beginnings of a society called hung, or "The
Brotherhood of Heaven and earth", containing many Masonic traditions.
Strange lights were seen in the sky in the days of the
Emperor Theodosius. On a sudden, a bright globe appeared at midnight and
shone brilliantly near the daystar, (Venus). This globe shone little less
brilliantly than the planet, and little by little, a great number of other
glowing orbs drew near the first globe. The spectacle was like a swarm of
bees flying around the beekeeper, and the light of these orbs was as if
they were dashing violently against each other. They blended together into
one awful flame, and bodied forth to the eye as a horrible two-edged sword.
The strange globe, which was first seen now appeared like the pommel to
a handle, and all the little orbs, fused with the first, shone as brilliantly
as the first globe.
A thing like a burning globe, presenting a sword, shown
brilliantly in the sky over Istanbul. It seemed almost to touch the earth
from the zenith, "Such a thing was never recorded to have been seen
before by man."
about> 5th Century
A Pictish stone depicts what might be the Loch Ness
Copies of the Mandylion, "the true picture of the
face of Christ", alleged to have been given to King Abgar of Mesopotamia
by Christ himself, spread all over the Christian world.
A report from Brittany in northern France, "a blazing
thing like a globe was seen in the sky. Its size was immense, and on its
beams hung a ball of fire like a dragon out of whose mouth proceeded two
beams, one of which stretched beyond France, and the other reached toward
Ireland, and ended in fire, like rays."
There is a text preserved in a Buddhist Monastery in
China which tells of some monks who voyaged 7000 miles east to a new continent.
The text describes them making landfall on a coast with mountains and rivers,
(California?) then traveling inland to the east where they discover a large
canyon with stratified colors and a great river at the bottom (the Grand
Canyon?) They then travel south over a great desert with strange trees that
have many thorns, (cactus?) and find a civilization far to the south. Some
stone carvings with oriental features have been discovered among the civilizations
of South and Central America, and the similarities between Chinese dragon
sculptures and Central American dragon sculptures are striking.
Council Of Constantinople declares reincarnation to
Genesis of the Loch Ness Monster. According to a written
account, Saint Columba, a Christian missionary to Scotland, saved a swimmer
from the monster by shouting, "Think not to go further, touch not thou
that man. Quick! Go back!" In obedience to the Saint the creature fled.
Ever since then there have been vague accounts of "something"
in the Loch.
The Bishop of Tours in France, is perplexed by curious
"domes and golden globes that raced across the sky".
> 610 > about
Muhammad began to receive the Koran, from the angel
Djibril, (Jibril, Gabriel), while meditating at night in a cave outside
Mecca. The revelation continued for 23 years.
One night in the hot season, in India, a man named Hariswami
and his new wife were laying on the roof of the summer house. The veil on
the woman's face slipped off in the night while a demi-god was seated in
his car over head. His gaze suddenly fell upon her. The demi-god lowered
the car and placed her asleep within. She was never seen again. (As told
by Hariswami, translated from Hindu by J. Platts)
At a monastery at Barking near the Thames, England,
"a great light appeared in the sky at night and shone over nuns who
were singing in the burial-ground. They reported that it lifted up, moved
to the other side of the monastery, and then ascended into the night sky.
Priests said the light surpassed the brightness of day."
Estimated date of carving of stone statues found on
The Frankish Bishop Arculf of Périgueux claims
to have seen the "Shroud of Jesus" in Palestine.
Flaming object was seen flying to north from many countries
in Japan, one year before the war of the Jinshin.
673 to 735
Life of the Venerable Bede, the greatest scholar of
Saxon England whose Ecclesiastical History of England (731) contained many
occult and unexplained occurrences.
Sufi mysticism begins.
Al Azif (Necronomicon) a book supposed to have been
written by the black wizard Abdul Al-Hazred who lived at Sanaa in Yemen.
The book which has been translated by John Dee is also known as Al Azif
or the whispers of demons. Today most agree that The Necromicon is a compilation
of spells, recipes and other texts taken from older grimoires as The Key
of Salomon or the Kitab al Uhud from Araby which were among the famous magic
library of Assurbinapal.
Charles Martel defeated the Moslems with the aid of
the Holy Lance, the spear that pierced Christ's side.
China: Huge flame-breathing dragons were reported being
seen in skies, accompanied by men in airships.
Meath County: While King Domnall Mac Murchada attended
the fair at Teltown, ships were seen in the air.
The "Holy Vehm", a secret society founded
by Charlmagne who wrote the Code and Statues of the Holy Secret Tribunal
of Free Courts and Free Judges of Westphalia for this order.
From an chronicle by W. R. Drake: At Charlemagne's castle
at Sigiburg, as the Saxons were laying siege to the castle, "Those
watching outside in that place, of whom many still live to this very day,
saw they beheld the likeness of two large shields, reddish in color in motion
above the church, and when the pagans who were outside saw this sign, they
were at once thrown into confusion and terrified with fear and began to
flee from the castle."
St. Gregory of Tours, a historian, wrote of Charlemagne:
"Alcuin, the secretary and biographer of Charlemagne, and author of
the Vita Karoli, states in the thirty second chapter of his work that in
810 when he was on his way from Aachen, he saw a large sphere descend like
lightning from the sky. It traveled from east to west and was so bright
it made the monarch's horse rear up so that Charlemagne fell and injured
According to legend, the grave of Jacob was found at
the site where the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela later was built.
The Great Pyramid of Giza was broken into for the first
time. It was done by an Arab team on the orders of Caliph Ma'moun.
A synod meeting at Mantua decides to subject Venetians
to a new Patriarch of Aquila on the Frankish controlled mainland. Venice
however, in a bid for independence in church affairs, decided to obtain
the body of a potent saint. Two merchants--Buono of Malamocco and Rustico
of Torcello--sail to Alexandria, set out for the church containing the body
of the apostle St. Mark, and promptly steal it, substituting into the shroud
the body of St. Claudian from a nearby tomb. In order to avoid discovery
by Muslim customs officials, they smuggle the holy relic back to Venice
in a barrel of salt pork and cabbages.
As he was coming out of the Cathedral at Lyons, France,
Archbishop Abobard saw a mob stoning three men and a woman alleged to have
been seen alighting from a aerial ship.
An "evil spirit" threw stones and made the
walls shake in a small farmhouse, this was the first recorded poltergeist
Landulf II of Capua excommunicated from Sicily when
his alliance with Islam was unveiled. According to the medieval Chronicler
Echempertus he had, in the mountains of Monte Castello in the south-west
of Sicily, discovered the Temple of Erix at which priestesses had once guarded
the Oracle of Venus. (Qal'at al-Bellut, the Fortress of the Oaks). There
he is said to have performed evil rituals and according to Adolf Hitler's
personal notes from c. 1910 he was the source of Klingsor in Eschenbach's
Beginning of the Bogomils of Bulgaria, a Manicheian
sect, and the roots of Cathari.
An object like a flaming torch was seen in the sky in
Hungary, together with spheres, which flew over giving out a brighter light
than the stars.
920 to 1003
Life of Pope Sylvester II who allegedly visited the
Nine Unknown in India.
Edwin, a mythical son of Athelstan, presided according
to tradition over a Masonic meeting at York where certain charges where
agreed upon for the government of the Brotherhood.
A report from France: "In the town of Verdun, like
the whole eastern part of France, saw fiery armies appearing in the sky.
Flodoard's chronicle reports that they flew over eastern Reims on a Sunday
morning in March. Similar phenomena happened several times under King Pepin
the Short, under Charlemagne, under Louis I, the Debonair. These sovereign's
capitularia mention penalties against creatures that travel on aerial ships."
The first legislation against witchcraft (and banning
of Sunday trade) by King Athelstan.
August 15--The "Mandylion", a picture of Christ
"not made by human hands", (acheiropoieton), arrived at the church
of Our Lady at Blachernae in Constantinople from Edessa.
Al Azif translated into Greek as Necronomicon.
Some writers claim that a group know as the "Illuminated
Ones" was founded by Joachim of Floris in the eleventh century and
taught a primitive, supposedly Christian doctrine of "poverty and equality".
Approximate founding of Yezidi cult by Sufi Sheik Adi
"Abode of Learning" active in Cairo.
Spread of Cathari Manicheism throughout Europe.
August--In Egypt, a number of "stars" were
seen to fly over Cairo and the Nile Delta.
A rare typeset book from 1493 contains what may be the
earliest pictorial representation of a UFO. The book Liber Chronicarum,
describes a strange fiery sphere, seen in Europe, soaring through the sky
in a straight course from south to east and then veering toward the setting
sun. The illustration accompanying the account shows a cigar-shaped form
haloed by flames, sailing through a blue sky over a green, rolling countryside.
This may be the first work that actually contains actual illustrations of
1034 to 1124
Life of Hasan-e Sabbah, founder of the Assassins of
Persia. Member of the Ismaili sect, Hasan seized fortress of Alamut in Daylam
in 1090; split with Fatimid dynasty in 1094; Assassins flourished for next
Approximate date of founding of the "Order of Hospitallers"
The super nova called the Crab nebula appeared on the
sky and was pictured in rock paintings in some parts of the world.
From Geoffrey Gaimar's Lestoire des Englis: "In
this year people saw a fire that flamed and burned fiercely in the sky.
It came near the earth and for a little time brilliantly lit it up. Afterwards,
it revolved, ascended on high, and then descended into the sea. In several
places it burned woods and plains, and in the County of Northumberland this
fire showed itself in two seasons of the year."
> 1080 > about
The "Order of St John" founded in Jerusalem?
> 1090 > about
Hasan-e Sabbah created out of the Ishmaelians, (a Shiite
sub-sect), the "Order of the Assassins".
The "Queen of the Universe" appears in Arras,
The alleged "Holy Lance of the Passion" found
by the Crusaders in Antiochia in the Church of Saint Peter.
Godfroi founded the "Order of Sion".
Prince Madog of Wales brings the last of the Druids
to America and erects rings of blue gray stones in the hills near what would
one day be Mobile, Alabama.
Approximate date Sufi Gilani founds Arabic school of
Illuminati, the "Kadiri Order of Sebil-el-ward", in Baghdad.
Bogomil leader Basil burned in Constantinople.
Albigensian Cathari sect flourishes near Albi, France.
Avengers and Beati Paoli active in Italy.
Robin Hood active in England.
Vimanas (silent flying machines) written of in Indian
"Dervish Orders" appeared (Islamic-mystic
brotherhoods with hierarchical structure, initiations and exercises designed
to bring man in direct contact and oneness with God).
"Hospitallers of Jerusalem" founded, St Bernard
of Clairvaux founds monastery, to protect a "great secret".
A group of churchmen from Laon in France were going
from town to town in Wessex, England, bearing with them relics of the Virgin
Mary, which they used to perform miracles of healing. At the coastal town
of Christchuch, they were astonished to see a dragon come out of the sea,
"breathing fire out of its nostrils."
The "Order of St John" achieved their legitimate
status by a decree by Pope Paschalis II.
Hugh de Payens, a vassal of the count of Champagne,
France and eight other Crusader knights form the "Poor Fellow-Soldiers
of Christ and the Temple of Solomon", later to be known as the "Knights
Templar". They were approved as a holy order by theVatican, and proceeded to fight in the Crusades, gain
converts, and ultimately re-take the city of Jerusalem and the ruins of
the Temple of Solomon. While there, they carried out what would now be called
archaeological investigations, digging in and around the Temple. While no
one knows for sure, they may have found a great treasure. Later authors
will speculate that this treasure is the Shroud of Turin, or an occult manuscript.
They were a strict order of warrior/monks, and the Rule of their Order was
based on obedience, poverty and chastity. They were a major force in the
Crusades, and although individual members were permitted to own nothing,
the order itself grew rich. They gained lands, castles, money, power, and
prestige. They were also the forerunners of the banking business. They provided
such services as safe deposit, agents for collection of debts and taxes,
trusts for heirs, mortgage brokers, and issued paper money which could be
exchanged for hard currency with any other Templar outpost. They also had
the best communications network in the world. All their outposts were connected
by courier, and they used codes and ciphers for private messages between
each other. This was doubly effective since most people were completely
illiterate, and couldn't have even read a plain message. It was networks
such as this, and similar networks in other sacred orders, which started
to bring Europe out of the dark ages. During their existence, the Templars
also made many enemies. They were rich, powerful and secretive. They were
accused of performing occult rites in their round temples.
The first documented presence of the Templars in Spain--in
the northeastern part fighting against the Moors.
The Holy Grail present at the Saint Juan de la Pena
Monastery, Spain, according to catholic tradition.
Monks at the Brunia Monastery in the Trier region of
ancient Prussia (now Germany), founded by Charlemagne's father Pepin the
Short, reportedly captured a dark-skinned dwarf in the basement of the monastery,
after they discovered several wine casks that had been emptied onto the
cellar floor. They confined the little man, who refused to speak or eat,
until he escaped back down through the cellar and into a sloping tunnel
that was accessed via a displaced stone.
Pope Innocent II granted the Knights Templar the unique
privilege to build their own churches.
The east front of Chartres cathedral is dedicated to
the Blessed Virgin Mary and inside is a relic: the robe she is said to have
been wearing at the moment of her Assumption into heaven.
Rapid growth of Cathari sect begins.
Life of Joachim of Fiore, a Calabrian hermit, claimed
to have found a trinitarian system of ages in the Bible (the theory came
to have a big influence in history).
Knights Templars adopted the splayed red cross as symbol.
(The same as those of the Assassins or Hashishim.)
Everard de Barree, Grand Master of the Templars, saw
the Passion relics in Constantinople while in company with Louis VII and
Eleanor of Aquitaine.
The ancient Sterling Lodge claimed to represent the
Masons who built Cambies Kenneth Abbey.
> 1150-1200 >about
Sepher-ha-Bahir, a Koranistic work, appeared in Southern
France from unknown origin. It contained the first reference to the Tree
and the Sephirot.
> 1150 >about
The tale of the green children dates from the middle
of the twelfth century, in the realm of either King Stephen or his successor
King Henry II. In Suffolk, England, according to medieval chroniclers, two
green children, weeping inconsolably, were found wandering in a field. Seized
by reapers, they were taken to the nearest village, Woolpit, and held in
captivity at the home of Sir Richard cle Calne where local people came to
gape. According to William of Newburgh, the children were clad in "garments
of strange color and unknown materials." They could speak no English
and refused all food offered them. A few days later, on the brink of starvation,
they were brought "beans cut off or torn from stalks," wrote Abbot
Ralph of Coggeshall, who allegedly had the story from the Calne himself.
The children "broke open the beanstalks, not the pod or shell of the
beans, evidently supposing that the beans were contained in the hollows
of the stalks. But not finding beans within the stalks they again began
to weep, which, when the bystanders noticed, they opened the shells and
showed them the beans themselves. Whereupon, with great joyfulness, they
ate beans for a long time, entirely, and would touch no other food."
Soon the children were baptized, and not long afterwards the boy weakened
and died. The girl learned to eat other foods and was restored both to health
and to normal skin color. She learned to speak English and took employment
in service to a knight and his family. She "was rather loose and wanton
in her conduct," Ralph of Coggeshall wrote. Asked about her native
country, "she asserted that the inhabitants, and all that they had
in that country, were of a green color; and that they saw no sun, but enjoyed
a degree of light like what is after sunset. Being asked how she came into
this country with the aforesaid boy, she replied, that as they were following
their flocks they came to a certain cavern, until they came to its mouth.
When they came out of it, they were struck senseless by the excessive light
of the sun, and the unusual temperature of the air; and they thus lay for
a long time. Being terrified by the noise of those who came on them, they
wished to fly, but they could not find the entrance of the cavern before
they were caught." In William of Newburgh's account, the children said
their country was called St. Martin's Land. Its people were Christians.
There was no sun there, but across a broad river a bright, shining land
could be seen. Eventually the woman married and reportedly lived for years
at Lenna in Suffolk. Newburgh remarked, "Although the thing is asserted
by many, yet I have long been in doubt about the matter, deeming it ridiculous
to credit a thing supported by no rational foundation, or at least one of
a mysterious character; yet, in the end, I was so overwhelmed by the weight
of so many competent witnesses that I have been compelled to believe and
wonder over a matter I was unable to comprehend and unravel by the powers
of my intellect." A modern writer, British folklorist Katharine Briggs,
says, "This is one of those curiously convincing and realistic fairy
anecdotes which are occasionally to be found in the medieval chronicles."
Another recent chronicler, Paul Harris, speculates that the children were
not aliens from another realm but simply lost, undernourished children who
had wandered into flint mines in the vicinity of Thetford Forest, near the
village of Fordham St. Martin. "Perhaps from the twilight of the thick
woodlands the children could see a less forested and therefore sunnier land
across the river Lark," he writes. They may have spoken in an English
dialect "unintelligible to the insular 12th Century farmworkers of
An old legend tells how the knight Owen visited a cave
on Station island in County Donegal. Ireland, in the year 1153, leading
to an underground plain and a "cloister" where he met monks who
warned him of the temptations ahead. The knight travels to a black, icy
realm and also sulfurous pits of molten metal in which the wicked suffer,
finally arriving at the earthly paradise below the earth.
A certain Welsh prince, Madoc ab Owain Gwynedd, sailed
away from his homeland, which was filled with war and strife and battles
between his brothers. Yearning to be away from the feuds and quarrels, he
took his ships and headed west, seeking a better place. He returned to Wales
brimming with tales of the new land he found--warm and golden and fair.
His tales convinced more than a few of his fellow countrymen, and many left
with him to return to this wondrous new land, far across the sea. This wondrous
new land is believed to be what is now Mobile Bay, Alabama. Time has left
several blank pages between the legend of Madoc and the "history"
of America, with its reports of white Indians who speak Welsh, and these
blank pages have been the subject of much controversy in certain circles
over the five centuries since Columbus discovered the New World.
Peter Waldo founds the "Poor Men of Lyons".
A term equivalent to our "flying saucer" was
actually used by the Japanese approximately 700 years before it came into
use in the West. Ancient documents describe an unusual shining object seen
in the night as a flying "earthenware vessel." The object, which
had been heading northeast from a mountain in Kii province, changed its
direction and vanished below the horizon, leaving a luminous trail.
"Poor Men of Lyons" excommunicated, suppressed.
The Church of the Templars in London conscecrated.
"Prieure de Sion" separated from the Templars.
The "Order of St John" founded a monastery
in Eskilstuna, Sweden. On orders of King Henry II, who had heard that the
legendary King Arthur was buried there, workers began digging between two
ancient, pyramid-shaped pillars located at Glastonbury, in Somerset. At
a depth of seven feet they found a leaden cross which was engraved with
this inscription: HIC JACET SEPULTUS INCLYTUS REX ARTURUS IN INSULA AVALLONIA
("Here lies buried the renowned King Arthur in the Isle of Avallon").
Excited over this find, the excavators doubled their efforts. At sixteen
feet their shovels struck a large oaken tree trunk which had been hollowed
out to serve as a coffin. Breaking the trunk coffin open, they found the
skeleton of a man who once measured close to nine feet tall. Beside him
lay the remains of a woman of average height, whom the excavators took to
be Arthur's queen, Guinevere. About a century later the bones of the two
were reinterred in the great church before the altar in the presence of
King Edward I. "From that time," says the Encyclopedia Britannica,
"the Isle of Avalon has been identified with Glastonbury and romances
connecting Arthur and Glastonbury are still being written."
The "Teutonic Knights", (the "Order of
the Hospital of the Blessed Virgin Mary of the German House of Jerusalem"),
founded as a field hospital at the siege of Acre.
1200 to 1300
"House of Wisdom" in Cairo, roots of the Afghan
Origin of the Mafia in Sicily.
Joseph d'Arimathie, a poem written by Robert de Boron,
describing Joseph as the first keeper of the Holy Grail.
A 13th century historian, Saxo-Gammaticus, wrote down
the folklore and myths of Scandinavia. He recorded the ancient Viking belief
in "Hadding Land", a subterranean world where giants, superhumans,
tribes of black dwarfs, and "snake people" lived. These strange
beings, and even stranger animals, were said to occasionally surface in
the outer world and create chaos.
A report from England: William of Newburgh describes
a silvery, flat, shiny disc-like object, which appeared near the abbey and
frightened everyone near it.
The "Shroud of Jesus" was exhibited in the
Blachernae church, Constantinople.
Gervase of Tilbury, England writes in Otio Imperialia
about an aerial ship which caught its anchor on a pile of stones. An occupant
came down from the ship and managed to free it, however he was asphyxiated
by the atmosphere.
"Albigensian Crusade" begins suppression of
April 13--"La Iglesia de la Vera Cruz" (Knights
Templars church in Segovia, Spain) was consecrated.
During a Sunday mass in Gravesend, Kent, England it
is said that the congregation saw an anchor descend and catch on a tombstone
in the churchyard. The churchgoers rushed outside to see a strange "ship"
in the sky, with people on board. One occupant of the vessel leaped over
the side, but did not fall: "as if swimming in water" he made
his way through the air toward the anchor. The people on the ground tried
to capture him. The man then "hurried up to the ship." His companions
cut the anchor rope, and the ship then "sailed out of sight."
The local blacksmith made ornaments from the abandoned anchor to decorate
the church lectern.
The Dominicans created by a Spanish fanatic.
The Dominicans started the "Holy Inquisition"
to suppress Cathari and other heresies. The Inquisition founds the blessed
"Society of Leopold". The Society begins to suspect the presence
of vampires in the Church.
1235 to 1315
Life of "Dr. Illuminatus", Ramon Llull (Raymond
Lully) in Spain.
What might be called the first official investigation
of a UFO sighting occurred in Japan in 1235. During the night while General
Yoritsume and his army were encamped, mysterious lights were observed in
the heavens. The lights were seen in the southwest for many hours, winging,
circling and moving in loops. The general ordered a "full-scale scientific
investigation" of these strange events. The report finally submitted
to him has the "soothing" ring of many contemporary explanations
offered for UFO phenomena. In essence it read: "the whole thing is
completely natural, General. It is... only the wind making the stars sway."
July--A report from Matthew of Paris from England: "At
dusk, but not when the stars came out, while the air was clear, serene and
shining, a great star appeared. It was like a torch, rising from the south,
and flying on both sides of it, there was emitted in the height of the sky
a very great light. It turned quickly towards the north in the aery region,
not quickly, nor, indeed, with speed, but exactly as it wished to ascend
to a place high in the air."
The "Shroud of Jesus" sold to the Templars
by King Bela IV of Hungary because of lack of money.
Massacre of Cathari at Montsegur, France.
Approximate beginning of "Holy Vehm" in Westphalia.
The Knights Templars threatened by Henry III of England.
January 1--A report from Matthew of Paris: "At
midnight in the clear and serene sky with the stars shining and the moon
eight days old, there suddenly appeared in the sky a kind of large ship,
elegantly shaped, and well-equipped of marvelous color. Certain monks of
St. Albans saw it for a long time, as if it were painted, and a ship made
of planks, but finally it began to disappear."
The Assassin library at Alamut destroyed. All books
of their doctrine and ritual where burned by Hulagu Khan's Mongols.
Cathari hierarchy fades.
A spaceship was seen in Bristol, England, which landed
and an occupant came down from a ladder and was suffocated in the Earth's
Marco Polo reported from his trip to China that on special
occasions the royal chariot was pulled by dragons.
September 12--A priest was spared his life in Japan
when a shiny, bright object appeared in the sky, causing the executioners
to panic, fearing they had falsely accused the cleric of wrongdoing.
The alleged bones of Mary Magalene found in the southern
French town of Saint-Maximin after excavations in a 4th-century crypt. A
cathedral was later erected on the place.
Zohar, second book of the cabala, compiled by Moses
de Leon in Spain.
Roger Bacon, deviser of early eyeglasses, independently
Pope Innocent III pronounces the second coming will
be this year 666 years after the founding of Islam.
Report from Byland, North Yorkshire, from William of
Newburgh's Chronicle. The text is known as "The Ampleforth Manuscript",
it is a very old manuscript found in Ampleforth Abbey which gives a startling
account of a flying saucer over Byland Abbey in Yorkshire. It reads in part:
"While the abbot and monks were in the refectorium, a flat round, shining,
silvery object (discus) flew over the abbey and caused the utmost terror."
July 12--Acre, the last Christian fortress in Syria
lost to the Moslems. Theobald Gaudin, Grand Master of the K.T., managed
to escape from Acre to Cyprus with the treasure and relics the Knights Templars.
Hospitallers retreat to Cyprus.
The Teutonic Knights moved the center of the order from
the Holy Land to Venice.
Marco Polo hears of a giant bird capable of lifting
an elephant. It is supposed that this is the Madagascar Elephant Bird. About
this time they become extinct.
"White Lotus Society" founded in China at
Rozan, south of the Yang Tze.
Inquisition begins suppression of witches and other
October 13--Philippe IV of France ordered arrest of
all Knights Templars for witchcraft and heresies; more than 600 of the 3,000
Templars in France were imprisoned according to Inquisition records. Jacques
de Molay imprisoned in the Temple in Paris. From the destruction of the
Templars we get some of our modern customs. Friday the 13th is unlucky;
it is the day that the Templars were arrested.
June 24--Knights Templars held an annual chapter in
Poitiers for three days, displaying "The Mysterious Head", according
to Etienne de Troyes.
Hospitallers acquire the Isle of Rhodes.
September--The Teutonic Knights moved their headquarters
to Marienberg, Prussia.
October 6--Edward II ordered arrest of all Templars
Knights Templar dissolved by papal decree.
March 18--Jacques de Molay and Geoffroi de Charnay roasted
to death over a slow fire on the Ile de la Cité in the Seine.
Robert Bruce established, according to old Masonic tradition,
the "Royal Order of Scotland" and appointed the St. Clairs as
hereditary Grand Masters. Many prominent Templars became members.
The Portugese Templars became the "Order of Christ"
and received the approval of Pope John XXII.
England, Durham: After the abbot of Durham Abbey died
and was buried, a strange light was seen to descend from the sky and move
about over his grave.
The Damburrow Abbey is destroyed by a sinkhole in 1327,
and of its magnificent constructions only scattered ruins remain.
First appearance of the Tarot in Germany.
November 4--A report from Robert of Reading: "In
the first hours of the night, there was seen in the skies over Uxbridge
England, a pillar of fire the size of a small boat, pallid, and livid in
color. It rose from the south, crossed the sky with a slow and grave motion,
and went north. Out of the front of the pillar, a fervent red flame burst
forth with great beams of light. Its speed increased and it flew through
Edward III vowed to establish an order like Arthur's
at Windsor. (The round table still exists and was decorated in 1486 with
the figure of Arthur and the names of 24 knights.)
April 23--The "Order of the Garter" formally
founded on St. George Day, by Edward III of England. The members consisted
of twenty-four knights, the monarch and the Prince of Wales. The symbolism
of the garter itself still remains obscure. A record of the Order, compiled
in Henry VIII's reign, relates that Richard I, during his crusade, gave
garters to certain knights as tokens of honor, and it was supposed that
Edward III followed this example.
Pope Innocent VI ordered a grimoire called The Book
of Solomon, probably The Key of Solomon, to be burned.
January--The "Order of the Star", or the "Order
of Our Lady of the Noble Lineage" founded.
Approximate date of the earliest known Satanic cults
with black masses celebrated in France. 1361
A flying object described as being "shaped like
a drum, about twenty feet in diameter" emerged from the inland sea
off western Japan.
The first known record of the concept "Freemasons"
in the city archives of London.
1379 to 1482
Alleged life of Christian Rosenkreuz, fictitious founder
The "Zeno Map" was drawn, it covered a vast
area of the north as far as Greenland with amazing accuracy.
December--A "fire in the sky, like a burning and
revolving wheel..." was seen in Leicester and Northamptonshire, England.
The objects "emitted fire from above, and others in the shape of long,
A report from England: "A certain thing appeared
in the likeness of fire in many parts of England every night. This fiery
apparition, oftentimes when anybody went alone, it would go with him, and
would stand still when he stood still. To some it appeared in the likeness
of a turning wheel burning; to other some a round object, the likeness of
a barrel, flashing out flames of fire at the head; to others, the likeness
of a long burning lance."
Many feel that the Holy Grail may have been taken to
Nova Scotia in this year.
The Holy Grail brought to Martin the Humane, King of
Aragón, to his palace in Zaragoza, Spain, according to catholic tradition.
Cathari sect dies out.
The magician Abramelin, also called "Abraham the
Jew", authors The Book of Sacred Magic, said to have been delivered
to his son Lamech. His book offers readers cabalistic magic squares that
will purportedly perform such feats as raising tempests, causing spirits
to appear, changing men into animals and vice versa, procuring visions,
raising the dead, rousing love or hate, demolishing buildings, walking under
water, and even making stage performances appear.
Guru Nanak Dev first master of Sikhs
Latin translation of Corpus Hermeticum, which had just
been rediscovered in Macedonia. The Corpus Hermeticum is a collection of
texts from the second and third centuries of our era that survived from
a more extensive literature. Reflecting the generalized spiritual orientation
of late Hellenistic gnosis rather than a tradition in any organized sense,
these sometimes contradictory texts share only their claim to a common source
of revelation, Hermes Trismegistus.
The term "Illuminati" was used by one writer,
Menendez Pelayo, as early as 1492 and is attributable to a group known as
the "Alumbrados" of Spain. The Alumbrados were said to receive
secret knowledge from an unknown higher source, resulting in superior human
October 11--10:00 PM, from "The Life and Voyages
of Christopher Columbus": Christopher Columbus and Pedro Gutierrez
while on the deck of the Santa Maria, observed, "a light glimmering
at a great distance." It vanished and reappeared several times during
the night, moving up and down, "in sudden and passing gleams."
It was sighted 4 hours before land was sighted, and taken by Columbus as
a sign they would soon come to land.
1493 to 1541
Life of Paracelsus, possible real founder of Roscrucianism;
discoverer of zinc around 1530; model of the Faust legend.
Approximate date of Roshaiya, "the Illuminated
Ones", in the mountains of Afganistan.
Beginning of "Alumbrados" in Spain and "Charcoal-Burners"
1503 to 1566
Life of Nostradamus, visionary prophet.
Fra Dolcino's version of Joachim's Illuminism suppressed
by the Bishop of Vercueil.
An ancient tomb that some ditch diggers uncovered in
Rouen, France, contained the skeleton of a man over seventeen feet tall,
in his armor. Affixed to the tomb was this engraved identification: "In
this tomb lies the noble and puissant lord, the Chevalier Ricon de Vallemont,
and his bones."
At the Siege of Utrecht in Holland: "A cruel and
strange sight was seen in the sky, which terrified the townspeople and made
the enemy think he would get the city. It was the form of a Burgundian cross
right over the city, high in the sky, yellow in color, and fearful to behold."
Hospitallers given Isle of Malta by Charles V, become
"Knights of Malta".
The first mention of South America's mysterious hominid
creature called mono grande (big monkey) or didi, appears to be in a book
written by Pedro de Cieza de Leon in 1553. De Leon recounts native superstitions
about these creatures, and goes on to tell of a Spaniard who found a carcass
of one in the forests.
March 10--A report from France: "There appeared
between 6 and 8 PM, about the moon, a burning fire, emitting a great noise,
what seemed to be the point of a lance, turning form side to side, from
east to west, casting out flames on all sides."
Though sea serpents are ubiquitous in myths and legends,
the first attempt to describe them as figures in natural history appears
in a 1555 work by Olaus Magnus, the exiled Catholic archbishop of Uppsala,
Sweden. The archbishop wrote that sailors off the coast of Norway had often
seen a "Serpent ... of vast magnitude, namely 200 feet long, and moreover
20 feet thick." A dangerous beast, it lived in caves along the shore
and devoured both land and ocean creatures, including an occasional seaman.
"This Snake disquiets the shippers," Olaus Magnus wrote, "and
he puts up his head on high like a pillar."
Story of the Blessed Margaret of Metola. Margaret was
a blind dwarf, hunchbacked and lame, but that didn't stop her from living
a life of heroic service to the poor. She died in 1330, but in 1558 her
remains had to be transferred because her coffin was rotting away. At the
exhumation, witnesses were amazed to find that like the coffin, the clothes
had rotted, but Margaret's crippled body hadn't.
April--One of the most astounding of documented sightings
of aerial phenomena took place in 1561 over Nuremberg, Germany. What was
described could only be called a war in the heavens, with a wide variety
of craft ranging from spheres to spear-like cylinders to crosses. The sky
was apparently filled with the machines, clashing in battle. Comets and
such were well identified and charted in this period, so it is highly unlikely
that what the people witnessed was merely a celestial phenomenon like a
'meteor shower', as some debunkers suggest. Rather, what is described are
physical objects of unique detail and shapes, in 'battle' for over an hour.
The battle was such that a winner was perceived as well. Spheroid UFOs were
seen emerging from cylindrical 'motherships'. At the conclusion of the battle,
it seems a magnificent, black, spear-like super-ship of some kind came upon
the scene... It began at dawn, as dozens, if not hundreds, of crosses, globes
and tubes fought each other above the city. It ended an hour later, when
"the globes in the small and large rods flew into the sun," and
several of the other objects crashed to earth and vanished in a thick cloud
of smoke. According to the Nuremberg Gazette, the "dreadful apparition"
filled the morning sky with "cylindrical shapes from which emerged
black, red, orange and blue-white spheres that darted about." Between
the spheres, there were "crosses with the color of blood." This
"frightful spectacle" was witnessed by "numerous men and
women." Afterwards, a "black, spear-like object" appeared.
The author of the Gazette warned that "the God-fearing will by no means
discard these signs, but will take it to heart as a warning of their merciful
Annunciation with St. Emidius Father in heaven, will mend their lives and
faithfully beg God, that he avert His wrath, including the well-deserved
punishment, on us, so that we may, temporarily here and perpetually there,
live as His children."
August 7--UFOs Do Battle In The Heavens Over Basel,
Switzerland A student in Basel, Switzerland reported that just after dawn
on August 7, 1566, "many large, black globes were seen in the air,
moving before the sun at great speed and turning against each other as if
fighting. Some of them became red and fiery and afterwards faded and went
First Inquisition edict against the Alumbrados.
May 13--A famous naturalist, Ulysses Aldrovandus, recorded
the details of a peasant killing a small dragon along a farm road in northern
Italy on this day. He obtained the dragon carcass, thoroughly documented
the encounter, and had it mounted and placed in a museum.
1575 to 1624
Life of Jakob Bohme, visionary mystic, illuminated one.
English colony established at Roanoke Island, Virginia;
no trace of the "lost colony" was found when supply ships returned
three years later.
Stubbe Peeter was tried in Germany in 1589 for 25 years
of hideous crimes, including murder of adults and children (including his
own son), cannibalism, incest, and attacks on animals. Peeter claimed to
have made a pact with Satan, who provided him with a girdle which turned
him into a wolf.
North Berwick witches coven attempts To sink King James'
The "Phiri Rhis Map" is drawn which shows
the coastline of Africa and South America accurate to within a .5 degree
of longitude. The map clearly shows features of the earth that nobody should
have known in the late 1500's. On the map he wrote that he had borrowed
and copied from 20 earlier ancient maps. Some of the maps dating back to
Alexander the Great and older. Without an accurate timepiece there was no
way to figure longitude on a sailing ship. It wasn't until 1790 that the
first accurate marine timepiece was invented.
England, London: A "flying dragon" surrounded
by flames was seen over the city.
Anonymous alchemist seeks to start Rosicrucian-like
society in Europe. 1603
King James of England declares witchcraft a capital
Rosicrucian constitution published.
First recorded sighting of "Champ", or the
Lake Champlain Monster, by Pierre de Champlain.
The Wood manuscript written, traces the history of the
Order from two pillars that were found after Noah's Flood.
As late as this date, the Chinese emperor was still
appointing the post of a "Royal Dragon Feeder."
A pamphlet begins circulating describing an ancient
secret society begins to circulate. Worthy people are invited to join. No
address or instructions are given on how to contact the Rosicrucian order,
but it is promised that published inquiries will be answered. The "Fraternity
of the Rosy Cross" allegedly dates back to the time of the Egyptian
ruler Akhnaten, who worshipped the sun.
Lakota Indian tribe puts star map on buffalo hide.
Posters appear in Paris saying that the Rosicrucians
are "amongst you...visibly and invisibly."
Alumbrados of Spain condemned by an edict of the Grand
Guerinets appear in France.
In this year one James Everett, sober, discreet man,
and two others, saw a great light in the night at Muddy River in New England.
When it stood still, it flamed up, and was about three yards square; when
it ran, it was contracted into the figure of a swine: it ran as swift as
an arrow towards Charlton, and so up and down about two or three hours.
They were come down in their lighter about a mile, and, when it was over,
they found themselves carried quite back against the tide to the place they
came from. Divers other credible persons saw the same light, after, about
the same place.
Beginning of subliminal persuasion when Rembrandt imbeds
the word "sex" in a painting.
March 11-- England, from the diarist John Evelyn: I
must not forget what amazed us exceedingly the night before, namely, a shining
cloud in the air in a shape resembling a sword, the point reaching to the
north. It was as bright as the moon, the rest of the sky being very serene.
It began about 11 at night and vanished not till about one, being seen by
all the south of England.
Earliest known Masonic Lodge to allow non-professional
or "free" masons, in Warrington, England.
The "English Diggers", a group of agrarian
communists who flourished in England in 1649-50 and were led by Gerrard
Winstanley (q.v.) and William Everard. The Diggers were harassed by legal
actions and mob violence, and by the end of March 1650 their colony was
Reliable sightings of "flying dragons" (pterosaur-like
creature) in Europe are recorded as recently as this year. The woods around
Penllin Castle, Glamorgan, had the reputation of being frequented by winged
serpents, and these were the terror of old and young alike. The winged serpents
were described as very beautiful. They were coiled when in repose, and "looked
as if they were covered with jewels of all sorts. Some of them had crests
sparkling with all the colours of the rainbow". When disturbed they
glided swiftly, "sparkling all over," to their hiding places.
When angry, they "flew over people's heads, with outspread wings, bright,
and sometimes with eyes too, like the feathers in a peacock's tail".
Locals had killed some of them, for they were as bad as foxes for poultry,
and the extinction of the winged serpents was due to the fact that they
were "terrors in the farmyards and coverts."
Illuminated Guerinets come to public notice in France.
The Florentine Heresy rocks the "Society of London".
The following is the text of a sworn statement by a
seventeenth-century Swedish clergyman, P. Rahm: "In the year 1660,
when I and my wife had gone to my farm, which is three quarters of a mile
from Ragunda parsonage, and we were sitting there and talking awhile, late
in the evening, there came a little man in at the door, who begged of my
wife to go and aid his wife, who was just in the pains of labor. The fellow
was of small size, of a dark complexion, and dressed in old gray clothes.
My wife and I sat awhile, and wondered at the man; for we were aware that
he was a Troll, and we had heard tell that such like, called by the peasantry
Vettar (spirits), always used to keep in the farmhouses, when people left
them in harvest-time. But when he had urged his request four or five times,
and we thought on what evil the country folk say that they have at times
suffered from the Vettar, when they have chanced to swear at them, or with
uncivil words bid them to go to hell, I took the resolution to read some
prayers over my wife, and to bless her, and bid her in God's name go with
him. She took in haste some old linen with her, and went along with him,
and I remained sitting there. When she returned, she told me that when she
went with the man out at the gate, it seemed to her as if she was carried
for a time along in the wind, and so she came to a room, on one side of
which was a little dark chamber, in which his wife lay in bed in great agony.
My wife went up to her, and, after a little while, aided her till she brought
forth the child after the same manner as other human beings. The man then
offered her food, and when she refused it, he thanked her, and accompanied
her out, and then she was carried along, in the same way in the wind, and
after a while came again to the gate, just at 10 o'clock. Meanwhile, a quantity
of old pieces and clippings of silver were laid on a shelf, in the sittingroom,
and my wife found them next day, when she was putting the room in order.
It is supposed that they were laid there by the Vettar."
August 15-- As the people of the village Robozero (in
the Bolozero district, Russia) were in church they heard a loud noise in
the sky and many people left the church to see what was up. One of them
was the farmer Levka Pedorov who told the stort to the monastery monk, who
documentetd it in script. In midday a "great ball of fire" descended
from the south in a clear blue sky over Robozero and moved across the church
to the near lake. The "ball" was 45 meters in diameter and two
beams of "fire" were shooting out from the front and then, after
it went from the south to the west (500meters from Pedorov), it "dissapeared".
Only to re-apear an hour later over the same lake. And there it stayed for
an hour and a half. A company of fishermen in a boat on the lake a mile
away from Pedorov were sorely burnt by the light of the "ball",
which lit up the lake to it's bottom 9 meters deep, while the fish fled
to the banks. Pedorov described the water as if "covered with rust
under the glow..."
Russian Old Believers begin setting themselves alight
to protect themselves from the Antichrist. By 1690, 20,000 are dead.
The Hope Diamond is believed to have come from the Kollur
mine near Golconda in India. It first came to attention in the 1660's when
a French explorer Tavernier noticed the then 112 carats of golf ball shaped
blue stone, gleaming on the forehead of a temple idol. At that point in
time it was roughly three times the size that it is today. Tavernier took
the diamond back to France where in 1669 he sold it to Louis XIV for the
modern day equivalent of £71 million.
A Dutchman named Jan Struys, captured and enslaved by
bandits in Armenia, met a hermit--or so he would claim later--on Ararat.
Struys, believed by his captors to possess magical healing powers, treated
the old man, who in gratitude handed him a "piece of hard wood of a
dark color" and a sparkling stone, both of which "he told me he
had taken from under the Ark."
In An Account of Two Voyages to New England, published
in 1674, John Josselyn recalled a 1639 conversation with residents of the
Massachusetts colony: "They told me of a sea-serpent or snake, that
lay coiled upon a rock at Cape Ann."
The earliest known crop circle, known as the "Mowing
Devil," is shown on a woodcut from Hertfordshire, England. The inscription
reads, "Being a True Relation of a Farmer, who Bargaining with a Poor
Mower, about the Cutting down Three Half Acres of Oats: upon the Mower's
asking too much, the Farmer swore That the Devil should Mow it rather than
He. And so it fell out, that very Night, the Crop of Oat shew'd as if it
had been all of a flame: but next Morning appear'd so neatly mow'd by the
Devil or some Infernal Spirit, that no Mortal Man was able to do the like.
Also, How the said Oats ly now in the Field, and the Owner has not Power
to fetch them away."
Madame Le Voisin, innovator of modern Satanism, executed
Tamanend, sachem and chief of the Lenni-Lenape tribe,
welcomes William Penn to America, traditionally considered the beginning
of the "Tammany Society".
The witchcraft trials in Salem, Massachusetts. 20 people
are executed for witchcraft. Nineteen are hanged, not burned, and one is
crushed under heavy stones.
Dr. O. Dapper wrote that the Congo was inhabited by
"squirrels with tails much larger than those in Europe, bears, wild
cats, and very venomous vipers...".
William III of Orange becomes king of England, allegedly
through the plotting of the Illuminati.
One of the great early studies of Fairies was Robert
Kirk's The Secret Common-Wealth. Kirk, a Presbyterian clergyman who served
in Scotland's Highlands and who had a keen interest in the supernatural
lore of the region, was convinced of the reality of fairies. After all,
he asked, how could such a widespread belief, even if "not the tenth
part true, yet could not spring of nothing?" He conducted his inquiries
on the assumption that once he had enough information, he could accurately
describe the nature of fairy life down to its smallest details. According
to Kirk, fairies were of a "middle nature between man and angel"
with bodies "somewhat of the nature of a condensed cloud." They
dressed and spoke "like the people and country under which they live."
Sometimes passing fairies could be heard but not seen. They traveled often,
frequently through the air, could steal anything they liked (from food to
human babies), and had no particular religion. Mortals with "second
sight" (clairvoyance) were most likely to see them, since they were
usually invisible to the human eye. In fact, the word "fairy"
comes from a much earlier word, faierie, which meant a state of enchantment
rather than an individual supernatural entity.
A skeleton found in a tomb near Angers, France, measured
seventeen feet four inches.
Teleportations of human beings are not hard to find
in folkloric and religious contexts. One early example of the former, recorded
by the Rev. Robert Kirk in his classic work on seventeenth-century Scottish
fairy traditions, The Secret Comnion-Wealth (1692), remarks on one unfortunate
man's plight: His neighbours often perceaved this man to disappear at a
certane Place, and about one Hour after to become visible, and discover
himself near a Bowshot from the first Place. It was in that Place where
he became invisible, said he, that the Subterraneans [fairies] did encounter
and combate with him.
Calcutta is plagued by a man-eating tiger. Edmond Hoyle
discovers it is a shapechanger and kills it.
"Kap Dwa" was allegedly a 12-foot tall two-headed
giant, who lived in the 17th century, and was captured by Spanish sailors
in 1693. It was said he had a pike driven through his heart after managing
to kill four of his captors. Since then his stuffed body has been displayed
at various sideshows in England from 1900 onwards, and in America since
November 4--Sighting of two UFOs over Hamburg, Germany.
The objects were described as "two glowing wheels".
In the US, there is an 18th century Indian legend about
luminous humanoid beings who paralyzed people with a small tube. In variations
of these tales, Indian women were even said to have married a couple of
these "star people".
Montanus, an eighteenth century writer on German folklore,
told of wizards flying in the clouds, who were shot down.
Quietism of Fenelon and others.
Earliest record of "operative" or professional
Masonic Lodge in Alnwick, England.
The London Lodges of Freemasonry unilaterally decide
to cast off their vows of secrecy and go public. They are followed, sometimes
unwillingly, by other Lodges all over the British Isles and western Europe.
They are still a secret society, in that their rites and rituals are secret,
but they have publicly acknowledged that they exist.
British King George I cracks down on the flourishing
"Hell Fire Clubs", popular Satanist cults.
Anderson's Constitutions of the Freemasons published.
Ebrietatis Enconium and other early anti-Masonic works published.
Publication of the anti-Masonic Grand Mysteries of the
Jonathan Swift in his book Gulliver's Travels, accurately
"predicted" the previously unknown existence of the two moons
of Mars (Phobos and Deimos). These were not discovered by telescope until
1877. There is no way Swift could have known the moons were real yet he
described Phobos' orbital period as 10 hours (very close to the real figure
of 7.6) and Deimos' as 21.5 (close to the real 30.2). Both seem to be very
lucky guesses. How was Swift able to predict the existence of the moons
and their attributes so well? Some have seriously suggested he had psychic
Last official burning of a witch in Scotland.
Strange subterranean thundering noise phenomena has
been reported since at least 1729 and even before by natives, centered near
Mt. Tom and especially Cave Hill, six miles the NW near Leesville, Connecticut,
where there is a cavern where witches once congregated that has not been
fully penetrated to any great depth because of its "bad air".
Benjamin Franklin initiated into Freemasonry.
Franklin elected Grand Master of Pennsylvania.
Hans Egede, a Protestant missionary known as the Apostle
of Greenland, recorded this 1734 manifestation, witnessed while he was on
his second voyage to Greenland: "This Monster was of so huge a Size,
that coming out of the Water, its Head reached as high as the Mast-Head;
its Body was bulky as the Ship, and three or four times as long. It had
a long pointed Snout, and spouted like a Whale-Fish; great broad Paws, and
the Body seemed covered with shell-work, its skin very rugged and uneven.
The under Part of its Body was shaped like an enormous huge Serpent, and
when it dived again under Water, it plunged backwards into the Sea, and
so raised its Tail aloft, which seemed a whole Ship's Length distant from
the bulkiest part of its Body."
According to legend, Ms. Leeds of Burlington, New Jersey,
gives birth to a baby boy but he transforms into a monster with the head
of a horse, feet of a pig and the body of a snake.
Death of the last leader of the Afghan Illuminated Ones.
Ramsay asserts the Templar origin of Masonry.
Pope Clement XII issued a Papal Bull which stated that
any Catholic who became a Mason would be excommunicated, a very serious
December 16--From an account by a Fellow of the Royal
Society, England: "I was crossing St. James park when a light rose
from behind the trees and houses, from the south and west, which at first
I thought was a rocket of large size. But when it rose 20 degrees, it moved
parallel to the horizon, but waved like this (the speaker drew an undulating
line) and went on in the direction of north-by-east. It seemed very near.
Its motion was very slow. I had it for about half a mile in view. A light
flame was turned backwards by the resistance the air made to it. From one
of burning charcoal. That end was a frame like bars of iron, and quite opaque
in my sight. At one point on the longitudinal frame, or cylinder, it issued
a train in the shape of a tail of light more bright at one point on the
rod or cylinder; so that it was transparent for more than half of its length.
The head of this strange object seemed about a half a degree in diameter
and the tail near three degrees in length."
A man calling himself the Count of St. Germain turned
up in Paris, looking about thirty, he claimed he was two thousand years
old. He told the court that he had developed an elixir to keep him thirty
forever. He graced many dinner tables, but would never eat; he said he never
touched food but lived on his magic elixir. He did add that he had partaken
of one wedding dinner-the one that Christ attended at Cana. He opened a
scientific laboratory outside St. Antoine to various society visitors, but
no one could figure out what he was doing. Even when the king of France
gave him laboratory space at Versailles, they were no wiser. Nor Charles
of Hesse-Cassel later. He told eighteenth-century Parisians that he had
known Henry IV (1550-1610). If that was true, then perhaps he was also the
man who scared Catherine de Medicis to death in 1589, for she was Henry's
mother-in-law. An astrologer had told Catherine (1519-1589) "to beware
of St. Germain," so the queen carefully avoided the Faubourg St. Germain,
a district of Paris. Then she fell ill and sent for a priest to hear her
confession. He appeared and announced that his name was St. Germain, and
she dropped dead. He got involved in diplomatic intrigues and went on several
confidential missions for the French king, journeying mysteriously to Vienna,
Constantinople, Moscow, and other exotic capitals. In Paris, he made lots
of friends, mostly ladies. They kept him so busy (he told Casanova, also
an agent of Louis XV) that he didn't have time to invent the steamboat,
but he would get to that in the next century. Meanwhile, he distributed
to them a wash that took away wrinkles and warned Marie Antoinette of the
impending revolution (she didn't believe him).
"Hell Fire Clubs" continue to flourish in
Dublin and London.
In Rio de Janeiro, a modern-day researcher named Fawcett
found a report of the long forgotten discovery by the Spanish in 1753 of
the ruins of a monumental stone city; there was no record of it ever having
been visited again. Given a 10-inch tall figure carved of black basalt,
Fawcett had it evaluated by a psychometrist, one who claims he can divine
an object's origin by holding it. Undoubtedly, he was told, it came from
the lost continent of Atlantis, taken along when its inhabitants had fled
destruction to find refuge and build a great city in the Brazilian wilderness.
Since the name was unknown, Fawcett called it "Z" for convenience.
A civilization older than Egypt's waited to be uncovered.
Fictional alchemist Joseph Curwen writes letter stating
"I laste Nighte strucke on ye Wordes that bringe up Yooge-Sothothe,"
perhaps the real power behind the Illuminati.
Baron von Hund founds Templar Strict Observance, inspired,
some say, by Frederick II of Prussia. For the first time there is talk of
the Unknown Superiors. Some insinuate that the Unknown Superiors are Frederick
First year of Swedenborg's "New Era."
A spell of unpopularity caught up with Saint Germain,
and he moved to London for two years, perhaps serving as a spy for the English
While working in a new tin mine at Tregoney-on-Fal,
in Cornwall, reports the Annual Register for 1761, a miner discovered a
stone coffin on which some unrecognizable characters were inscribed. Inside
the ancient eleven-foot-three-inch casket he saw the gigantic skeleton of
a man, which, when exposed to the air, crumbled to dust-except for one tooth,
which measured two and one-half inches in length.
August 9--First UFO photograph and a most unusual sighting
was reported by Monsieur de Rostan, an amateur astronomer and member of
the Medicophysical Society of Basel, Switzerland. On August 9, 1762, at
Lausanne, Switzerland, he observed through a telescope a spindle-shaped
object crossing and eclipsing the sun. Monsieur de Rostan was able to observe
this object almost daily for close to a month. He also managed to trace
its outline with a camera obscure and sent the picture to the Royal Academy
of Sciences in Paris. Unfortunately, his image -- probably the first one
ever obtained of a UFO -- no longer exists. A friend of Monsieur de Rostan,
living at Sole near Basel, also observed the spindle-shaped object against
the sun, but it seemed to present more of an edge and was not quite as broad.
Oddly enough, the UFO was not visible to a third astronomer, a Monsieur
Messier who studied the sun, during the same time, from Paris -- an indication
that the object was not a sunspot, since it was visible only from certain
In the mountains of Germany, a peasant couple left their
three-year-old daughter lying asleep by a stream as they cut grass a short
distance away. When they went to check on her, they were horrified to find
her missing. A frantic search proved fruitless until a man passing by on
the other side of the hill heard a child crying. As he went to investigate,
he was startled at the sight of a huge eagle flying up before him. At the
spot from which it had ascended, he found the little girl, her arm torn
and bruised. When the child was reunited with her parents, they and her
rescuer estimated that the bird had carried her well over 1,400 feet.
One of the most perplexing cryptozoological mysteries
of all time, the Beast of Gévaudan was a cow-sized, wolf-like monster
which terrorized the district of Gévaudan (Lozère), France,
from 1764 until 1767. This tiny province, in the Margeride Mountains of
south-central France, first became aware of the Beast in June, 1764. That
month, a young woman was attacked by a large, wolf-like monster in the Forêt
de Merçoire near Langogne. She was one of the few people who survived
an encounter with la Bête, a creature which was, peculiarly, referred
to in the feminine. In October of that year, two hunters came across the
Beast and shot at it from close range. The Beast was hit a total of four
times, but it seemed relatively untouched. A Capt. Duhamel, who commanded
nearly 60 soldiers, began his own hunt for La Bête, and on several
occasions wounded it--but it was still not killed. King Louis XV himself
sent an experienced wolf-hunter named Denneval to Gévaudan to kill
the Beast. Before Denneval himself managed to track down the Beast, a man
named de la Chaumette saw the Beast near his home, near St.-Chely. He and
his two brothers went out to a pasture in hopes of killing the Beast. They
shot it twice, but it still didn't die. In June, 1765, Denneval gave up
his hunt. The previous month, King Louis sent out his chief gun-carrier,
Antoine de Beauterne. On September 21, he launched a hunt in the Béal
Ravine, near Pommier. He shot what he believed was the Beast. It was an
extremely large wolf, 6 feet long. De Beauterne's kill was preserved up
until this century in the Museum of Natural History in Paris. But the killings
still continued. In the summer of 1767, hundreds of peasants made pilgrimages
to Notre-Dame de Beaulieu Cathedral near Mount Chauvet to pray for deliverance
from the creature, which was widely believed to be either punishment sent
by God, or possibly a loup-garou (werewolf). One of the peasants who went
to the cathedral was a hermit named Jean Chastel. He had his rifle and three
bullets blessed. On June 19, 1767, an area noble organized a huge hunt,
with more than 300 participants. Chastel, at the Sogne d'Aubert, waited
for the Beast to appear, praying all the while. When it appeared, he shot
it. Finally, it died. What was the Beast? The French peasants of the area
believed it to be some sort of demon, but an English account from about
the same time said the Beast was most likely a member of "a new species",
which they said was a hybrid of tiger and hyena. Learned men believed it
to have been a wolverine, a bear, or even a baboon.
Illumines of France founded.
Edward Bancroft's An Essay on the Natural History of
Guiana makes mention of what might be the a species of South American mystery
hominids when he recounts tribal superstitions that creatures "near
five feet in height, maintaining an erect position, and having a human form,
thinly covered with short, black hair" dwelt in the forest.
In Staffordshire, England, a laborer moved a large flat
stone he encountered in a field while digging a trench, beneath which he
discovered a descending stone staircase which he followed deep into the
earth, finding that the staircase switch-backed now and then until he emerged
into a large underground chamber several hundred feel below that was filled
with strange objects and large machines and illuminated by a strange ever-luminous
sphere which revealed a man on a throne like chair, dressed in a hooded
robe. The man in the chair saw the intruder and stood up with a baton like
object in his hand as he went over to the luminous sphere and smashed it,
plunging the cavern into darkness, as the laborer stumbled back up to the
surface in surprise and terror. The story spread that one of the secret
chambers where the Rosicrucians hoarded their scientific secrets had been
discovered, i.e. the "Rosicrucius Sepulchre".
Alleged meeting of Meyer Rothschild and others to plan
a world revolution.
July 21--Pope Clement XIV "forever annulled and
extinguished the Jesuit Order." France, Spain and Portugal had independently
come to realize that the Jesuits were meddling in the affairs of the state
and were therefore enemies of the government. The Pope's action was a response
to pressure applied by the monarchies.
Casanova becomes secret agent for the Inquisitors of
Adam Weishaupt, a professor of canon law at the University
of Ingolstadt in Bavaria, started the "Order of the Illuminati"
on May 1, 1776, originally calling it the "Order of Perfectibilists".
Weishaupt (born a Jew and "converted" to Roman Catholicism) was
a former Jesuit priest (the Jewish military arm of the Catholic Church)
who broke with that Order to form his own organization. His plan was to
use the Grand Orient Lodges of Europe as a filtering mechanism through which
to screen out talent and build a hierarchy of inner circles. Like the Mafia
of today, only the inner circle could be trusted with the true purpose of
Franklin becomes ambassador to France, is affiliated
with French Masonic lodges.
Opening of Freemasons' Hall, permanent headquarters
of English Masonry.
Cagliostro initiated into Masonry.
The first written record of the mysterious creature
called mokele mbembe (literally, "stopper of rivers") appears
in a book written in 1776 by French priest Abbé Lievain Bonaventure
Proyart describing the natural history of the Congo Basin of Africa. He
described a creature "which was not seen but which must have been monstrous:
the marks of the claws were noted on the ground, and these formed a print
about three feet in circumference."
Weishaupt joins Munich Freemason Lodge of the "Order
of Good Council".
Washington has his mystical vision of the future of
the United States while at Valley Forge.
Franklin assists in initiation of Voltaire into Masonic
Lodge of Paris.
Masonic Convention in Lyons organizes "Knights
The crew of the American gunship Protector had an extraordinary
encounter in Penobscot Bay. One of the witnesses was an 18-year-old ensign,
Edward Preble, who would go on to become a commoclore and a notable figure
in U.S. naval history. In his biography of Preble, James Fenimore Cooper
recounts this event: The day was clear and calm, when a large serpent was
discovered outside the ship. The animal was lying on the water quite motionless.
After inspecting it with the glasses for some time, Capt. [John Foster]
Williams ordered Preble to man and arm a large boat, and endeavor to destroy
the creature; or at least to go as near to it as he could.... The boat thus
employed pulled twelve oars, and carried a swivel in its bows, besides having
its crew armed as boarders. Preble shoved off, and pulled directly towards
the monster. As the boat neared it, the serpent raised its head about ten
feet above the surface of the water, looking about it. It then began to
move slowly away from the boat. Preble pushed on, his men pulling with all
their force, and the animal being at no great distance, the swivel was discharged
loaded with bullets. The discharge produced no other effect than to quicken
the speed of the monster, which soon ran the boat out of sight.
Illuminati begins rapid growth.
Weishaupt dispatched the Marquis de Costanzo to propagate
Illuminism in the north.
First use of the title "Odd Fellows".
"Order of the Brotherhood of Asia", Rosicrucian
May--Report from Capt. George Little of the frigate
Boston: In May, 1780, 1 was lying in Round Pond, in Broad Bay [off the Maine
coast], in a public armed ship. At sunrise, I discovered a huge Serpent,
or monster, coming down the Bay, on the surface of the water. The cutter
was manned and armed. I went myself in the boat, and proceeded after the
Serpent. When within a hundred feet, the mariners were ordered to fire on
him, but before they could make ready, the Serpent dove. He was not less
than from 45 to 50 feet in length; the largest diameter of his body, I should
judge, 15 inches; his head nearly the size of that of a man, which he carried
four or five feet above the water. He wore every appearance of a common
Weishaupt seeks abortion for his sister-in-law while
awaiting dispensation to marry her.
United Masonic Lodges of Hamburg headed by Fraximus,
a secret Rosicrucian.
President Hanson commissions the "Eye in the Pyramid"
A Masonic congress was assembled at Wilhelmsbad in 1782,
under the presidency of the Duke of Brunswick, who was anxious to end the
discord reigning among German Freemasons. It was attended by Masons from
Europe, America, and Asia. At the Congress of Wilhelmsbad, an alliance between
Illuminism and Freemasonry was finally sealed. This pact joined together
all the leading secret societies of the day and united "not less than
3 million members all over the world." The actual effect of this merger
on the subsequent history of the world has never been appreciated by historians.
Most of which have belonged to one or the other of the secret societies
and have sworn not to expose its secrets.
Casanova retires as secret agent.
Ex-Illuminati Utschneider sends letter denouncing the
Order to monarch of Bavaria.
"Rite of Swedenborg" founded by Marquis de
"Eclectic Rite" founded by Baron Knigge in
Windsor Castle, England: Members of the Royal Academy
reported and illustrated the UFO they witnessed.
August 18--A UFO sighting occurred at 9:45pm in the
evening when four witnesses on the terrace of Windsor Castle observed a
luminous object in the skies of the Home Counties of England. The sighting
was recorded the following year in the Philosophical Transactions of the
Royal Society, who relates what witnesses observed: "An oblong cloud
moving more or less parallel to the horizon. Under this cloud could be seen
a luminous object which soon became spherical, brilliantly lit, which came
to a halt; this strange sphere seemed at first to be pale blue in color
but then its luminosity increased and soon it set off again towards the
East. Then the object changed direction and moved parallel to the horizon
before disappearing to the South-East; the light it gave out was prodigious;
it lit us everything on the ground."
Bavarian Monarch Carl Theodore outlaws secret societies.
Elector of Bavaria suppressed the Illuminati Order by
edict, June 22, 1784, many Illuminati being imprisoned and some, including
Weishaupt, being forced to flee the country.
A Swiss man standing nine feet high exhibited himself
to astonished patrons at Vienna, says the Gentleman's Magazine for that
Cagliostro moves to Lyons from Bordeaux to found the
Mother Lodge of Egyptian Masonry.
Royal Commission in Paris, including Franklin and Guillotine
as members, investigates Mesmerism and returns a negative report.
Saint Germain purportedly dies in Schleswig, where he
was in the magic business with Landgrave Charles of Hesse-Cassel. Or did
Four more leading members of the Illuminati left the
Society and testified before a Court of Inquiry called by the Elector of
Bavaria. Their startling evidence removed all doubt regarding the Satanic
nature of Illuminism. As a result, Weishaupt flees to Gotha; new edicts
in March and August outlaw Illuminati and Freemasonry in Bavaria.
Public attention was first drawn to the existence of
the Illuminati and their diabolical plan for world conquest as the result
of a bizarre accident in 1785. History records that a courier for the Illuminati,
named Lanze, was racing on horseback from Frankfurt to Paris carrying documents
relating to Illuminati activities in general, and specific instructions
for the planned French Revolution in particular. He was killed by lightning
and his papers fell into government hands.
French "Diamond Necklace" affair, orchestrated
by Cagliostro. Dumas describes it as Masonic plot to discredit the monarchy.
Rosicrucian Order suppressed in Austria. Anonymous pamphlet
appears in Germany revealing secrets of ancient Egyptian ceremonies.
The Columbian Lodge of the Order of the Illuminati was
established in New York City in 1785. Members included Governor DeWitt Clinton,
and later Clinton Roosevelt, Charles Dana and Horace Greeley.
Wisdom Lodge founded in Virginia.
Secret congress in Frankfort where Louis XVI and Gustavus
III of Sweden condemned to die by Illuminati.
Italian Illuminatus Buonarroti's library of Masonic
and subversive books confiscated by state authorities.
The "German Union" (extension of outlawed
Bavarian Illuminati) founded by Bahrdt.
Swedenborgian Church founded in London.
Both the Gentleman's Magazine, in November, and the
Annual Register for the same year reported that while English workers were
removing a ridge of limestone and rubbish in the lime quarries near Fullwell-hills,
close to Durham, they unearthed a human skeleton nine feet six inches long
with some teeth still in the skull.
Bavarian edict against "Reading Societies".
The Annual Register for 1790 informed its readers that
in July of that year some workers in a peat bog at Donnadea, near the seat
of Sir Fitzgerald Aylmer, uncovered at a depth of seventeen feet the sepulchre
of an Irish chieftain. Inside the coffin they found an eight-foot-two-inch
skeleton with a seven-foot spear at his side. The sepulchre, according to
local tradition, was built after the introduction of Christianity into Ireland.
Summer-- French Police Inspector Liabeuf witnessed and
investigated a large red globe as it flew over farmland. The globe landed
and a man came out and spoke in a language none understood. The globe then
exploded and the man disappeared. The event was witnessed by many and is
June 12--A strange entity witnessed by a crowd of people
in Alencon, France. It was said that at around that time a large metal sphere
descended from the sky and crash landed into a nearby hillside. After a
crowd had gathered, a "hatch" slid open and a being emerged dressed
in an odd tight fitting costume. It mumbled something in a strange language,
before bolting off towards some nearby woods. Seconds later the sphere exploded,
fragments of which were said to have "sizzled" on the grass and
melted. A wide search of the area yielded no further sign of the mysterious
Napoleon joins the "Jacobin Club".
Burr begins converting "Tammany Society" into
a political machine.
The anonymous Life of Joseph Balsamo (Joseph Basalmo
was Cagliostro's name before he joined the Masons), first recorded link
of the Illuminati and the French Revolution, appears in several European
Mozart's The Magic Flute, containing Masonic elements,
The French Blue Diamond mysteriously vanishes.
Louis XVI imprisoned in the Templars Temple tower.
First Swedenborgian church in America.
Catherine II outlaws Masonry in Russia.
Johann Rockerfeller of Germany comes to the USA, probably
the deadliest immigrant America will ever know. Not because he was a German
but because he was a German racist with some very dangerous international
banking cult connections.
Robespierre's enemies accuse him of attempting to have
himself declared divine by Catherine Theot, an old woman who preached a
mystery religion; Robespierre guillotined.
Dr Sigismund Bacstrom was initiated into a "Societas
Roseae Crucis" by Comte Louis de Chazal, on the island of Mauritius.
Daniel McGiniss discovers a clearing on Oak Island,
where he figured must be some buried treasure. He returned the next day
with John Smith and Anthony Vaughan. They only manage to dig down 30'.
The first real "break" as far as inside information
on the Illuminati is concerned, came when Professor John Robison, working
undercover in the Illuminati organization, came out and wrote a startling
book entitled Proofs of A Conspiracy. Nearly all of what is currently known
about the early Illuminati comes from Robison's book giving us a clear-cut
picture of the organization.
John Adams, who had been instrumental in organizing
Masonic Lodges in New England, decided to oppose Thomas Jefferson in his
bid for the presidency. He made a major issue of the fact that Jefferson,
who had been minister to France, 1785-1789, and was frankly sympathetic
to the Illuminist-fomented Reign of Terror, was using Masonic lodges for
Germany, Dresden and Berlin: A bright light irregular
in form and the size of the moon was seen in the sky above. A large detonation
was heard and a dark bituminous substance fell to earth.
July 19--David Pappen, President of Harvard University
issued a strong warning to the graduating class and lectured them on the
influence Illuminsm was having on the American scene. President Timothy
Dwight of Yale University issued a similar warning.
September 9--A "beautiful ball blazing with white
light,..." was seen at 8:30 P.M. in England. It made no sound, and
red sparks flew from it.
November 12, a "large red pillar of fire"
was seen in the sky going south in Hereford, England. It was preceded by
"flashes of extremely vivid electrical sort". Other object were
seen between 5 and 6 A.M. leaving luminous trails behind them.
In the 1800's, two trappers reportedly discovered a
cave in the Guadellupe Mountains of New Mexico, which they followed to a
considerable depth. Hiding behind a large outcropping of rock they observed
in fascination and horror a procession of beings in dark hooded robes enter
a large cavern and began to chant, at which a "crystal like" entity
descended from the stalactites above, hovered and in a multi-colored display
communicated with the beings in some type of xylophone-like manner, until
it once again ascended and was lost among the stalactites above, at which
the procession descended downward through the passage from which they had
Death of Thomas Waley, one of the last "Hell Fire
Napoleon comes to power, allegedly through Illuminati
Francis Barret who greatly inspired Eliphas Levi wrote
The Magus which contains also a great number of magic formula.
Fish ejected from volcano Cotopaxi in the North Andes.
McGinnis, Smith and Vaughan return to Oak Island, with
Simeon Lynds. At 100' they reach the probable site of the chests. They leave
it alone for the night, by the time they return everything is flooded.
Lynds and Smith dig a second pit and tunnel in from
the side, attempting to drain the water out. They are lucky to survive.
1805 to 1881
Life of Auguste Blanqui, French socialist, founder of
numerous secret societies modeled after Buonarroti.
The great Mammoth Cave in Edmondson County, Kentucky,
was discovered only in 1809. Bodies of an unknown race reputed to antedate
the Indians (giant descendents?) were found in its recesses with reed torches
beside them, but all crumbled to powder when touched.
One of the earliest recorded sightings of Sasquatch
by a white man occurred near what is now Jasper, Alberta by a fur trader
named David Thompson.
July--An Italian journal reported that in the valley
of Mazara in Sicily the skeleton of a man ten feet and three inches in length
was dug up. It was noted that several other human skeletons of gigantic
size had previously been found in the same area.
Secret societies which eventually become the "Decembrist
Movement" formed in Russian Masonic lodges.
Charles Nodier, an alleged Grand Master of the "Priory
of Sion", published anonymously one of his most curious and influential
works, A History of Secret Societies in the Army under Napoleon. It develops
a comprehensive philosophy of secret societies. And it credits such societies
with a number of historical accomplishments, including the downfall of Napoleon.
Suppression of the "Lodge of Jupiter the Thunderer"
The Leixlip churchyard yielded to diggers the skeleton
of a man not less than ten feet high. According to local tradition, the
giant Phelim O'Tool was buried in that same churchyard some thirteen hundred
Irish immigrants force entry into "Tammany Society",
changing its direction.
August 12, 13, and 14--Reports from Solomon Allen III:
1 have seen a strange marine animal, that I believe to be a serpent, in
the harbor in ... Gloucester. I should judge him to be between eighty and
ninety feet in length, and about the size of a half barrel.... I was about
150 yards from him.... His head formed something like the head of a rattlesnake,
but nearly as large as the head of a horse. When he moved on the surface
of the water, his motion was slow, at times playing about in circles, and
sometimes moving nearly straight forward. When he disappeared, he sunk [sic]
American "Independent Order of Odd Fellows"
Founding of "National Freemasonry", the most
important of several Polish secret societies devoted to ousting the Russians
June 6--Report from Hawkins Wheeler: I had a fair and
distinct view of the creature, and from his appearance am satisfied that
it was of the serpent kind. The creature was entirely black; the head, which
perfectly resembled a snake's, was elevated from four to seven feet above
the surface of the water, and his back appeared to be composed of bunches
or humps, apparently about as large as, or a little larger than, a half
barrel; I think I saw as many as ten or twelve.... I considered them to
be caused by the undulatory motion of the animal-the tail was not visible,
but from the head to the last hump that could be seen, was, I should judge,
August 14--Report from Samuel Cabot: My attention was
suddenly arrested by an object emerging from the water at the distance of
about one hundred or one hundred and fifty yards, which gave to my mind
at the first glance the idea of a horse's head.... I perceived at a short
distance eight or ten regular bunches or protuberances, and at a short interval
three or four more.... The Head ... was serpent shaped; it was elevated
about two feet from the water.... He could not be less than eighty feet
A formation of flying objects crossed the French town
of Embrun. Francois Arago wrote of this date in the Annales de chimie et
de physique: "Numerous observers have seen, during an eclipse of the
moon, strange objects moving in straight lines. They were equally spaced
and remained in line when they made turns. Their movements made a military
Russian government suppresses Masonry.
Charles Babbage demonstrates a prototype of his "Difference
Engine" to the Royal Astronomical Society. He continues his work by
designing an even more ambitious project "the Analytical Engine"
that reportedly was to use punch cards inspired by Joseph Jacquard's invention.
During his lifetime he never produces a functional version of either machine.
Despite this shortcoming he is often heralded as the "Father of the
Computer" and his work lives on as the foundation for the binary numbering
system that is the basis of modern computers.
Document from court of Vienna to French government denounces
secret associations like the Absolutes, the Independents, the Alta Vendita
"Decembrist Movement" suppressed in Russia
after brief uprising.
Sailors in the English Channel reported seeing a gray,
torpedo-shaped object flying overhead.
June 16-- The American ship Silas Richards was sailing
off St. George's Bank south of Nova Scotia at 6:30 P.M. on June 16, 1826,
when its captain, Henry Holdredge, and a passenger, Englishman William Warburton,
saw a most peculiar sight: an enormous, many-humped snakelike creature slowly
approaching the vessel. Warburton raced to inform the other passengers,
who were below deck, but only a handful responded. Warburton recalled, "The
remainder refused to come up, saying there had been too many hoaxes of that
Tammany Society backs Andrew Jackson for President.
Anti-Masonic Party founded, first third-party in America.
May 26--Kaspar Hauser mysteriously appears on the streets
Alleged Illuminati meeting in New York decides to unite
Atheists and Nihilists into Communist movement.
June--Olaf Jansen of Sweden with his father Jens Jansen
left Stockholm to take an extended fishing and pleasure voyage. They sailed
to Spitzbergen, Norway getting their first view of icebergs. Leaving Wijade
Bay on June 23, they sailed to Hinlopen Strait and along the rocky coast
of Franz Josef Land. After sailing for 24 hours, they came to a beautiful
inlet where the air was unseasonably warm. In front of them they saw an
open sea. Both father and son, having a love of the sea and a spirit of
adventure, decided in that moment to explore this unknown sea. They turned
the bow of their boat in a northerly direction and continued on. After three
days, they encountered a fierce storm with high winds and spiraling whirlpools.
A mist settled around their boat as they struggled to keep it afloat. Suddenly
they were in calm waters; the storm had passed. As the mist cleared, the
first light they noticed was a sun that was shining on them from an apparent
southern latitude rather than from the North as they would expect. Tasting
some drops of water that splashed on their hand, they discovered it was
fresh water. Their story goes on to relate many unusual climate and compass
irregularities. The compass needle continued to point north, although Olaf
and Jens knew they had sailed over the curve or edge of the Earth After
being ridiculed and laughed at in his homeland for relating his experiences,
a demoralized Olaf moved to America in 1889. In the last years of his life
he met and confided in a neighbor, who was a writer. The book about his
experiences was written by Willis George Emerson of Los Angeles. It was
published by Forbes and Company in Chicago in 1908. (The Smoky God: A Voyage
to the Inner World) Olaf Jansen had died just a few weeks earlier.
Anti-Masonic conventions in Massachusetts and Vermont
find evidence linking Masonry with Illuminism.
Book of Mormon published.
Writing in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal,
B. H. Hodgson, British Resident of the court of Nepal, made what may be
the first reference in English to a strange biped in the Himalayas. He related
that as they were collecting specimens in a northern Nepal province, his
native hunters encountered an erect, tailless creature with long, dark hair
all over its body. Taking it to be a demon, they fled in terror. Hodgson
took it to be an orangutan.
Soldiers digging at Lompock Rancho, California, discovered
a male skeleton 12 feet tall. The skeleton was surrounded by caved shells,
stone axes, other artifacts. The skeleton had double rows of upper and lower
teeth. Unfortunately, this body was secretly buried because the local Indians
became upset about the remains.
December 17--Kaspar Hauser dies of wounds received in
a mysterious stabbing.
The socialist "League of the Just" founded
in Paris, later becoming the Marxist "Communist League".
In the French coastal town of Cherbourg what was a described
as a "gleaming aerial vessel" was seen in the sky overhead.
October--Polly Adams is attacked at the Blackheath Fair
by Spring Heeled Jack.
A little girl, five years old, called Marie Delex, was
playing with one of her companions on a mossy slope of a mountain in the
French Alps, when all at once an eagle swooped down upon her and carried
her away in spite of the cries and presence of her young friend. Some peasants,
hearing the screams, hastened to the spot but sought in vain for the child,
for they found nothing but one of her shoes on the edge of a precipice.
The child was not carried to the eagle's nest, where only two eaglets were
seen surrounded by heaps of goat and sheep bones. It was not until two months
later that a shepherd discovered the corpse of Marie Delex, frightfully
mutilated, and lying upon a rock half a league from where she had been borne
January 9--The Lord Mayor of London reveals the existence
of a "citizen of Peckham" who has been frightening women.
February 18--Lucy and Margaret Scales are attacked by
Spring Heeled Jack in Limehouse.
The 222 ton ship Rosalie was found deserted but in ship
shape near the Bahamas, a victim of the Bermuda Triangle mystery.
According to an account he gave to a local historian,
a Stowmarket, England, man was passing through a meadow on his way home
when he saw fairies in the moonlight, "There might be a dozen of them,
the biggest about three feet high, and small ones like dolls. Their dresses
sparkled as if with spangles.... They were moving round hand in hand in
a ring, no noise came from them. They seemed light and shadowy, not like
solid bodies. I passed on, saying, the Lord have mercy on me, but them must
be the fairies, and being alone then on the patch over the field could seem
them as plain as I do you. I looked after them when I got over the style,
and they were there, just the same moving round and round. I ran home and
called three women to come back with me and see them. But when we got to
the place they were all gone. I could not make out any particular things
about theirfaces. I might be 40 rods from them and I did not like to stop
and stare at them. I was quite sober at the time."
Bahai religion begins when the Bab proclaims his mission
June 18-- According to the Malta Times " .we find
the brigantine Victoria some 900 miles east of Adalia, when her crew saw
three luminous bodies emerge from the sea into the air. They were visible
for ten minutes, flying a half mile from the ship." There were other
witnesses who saw this same UFO phenomena from Adalia, Syria and Malta.
The luminous bodies each displayed an apparent diameter larger than the
size of the full moon.
July 28--At 3:30 A.M., near Stralsund (then part of
Pomerania and now Germany). During a short walk from the city on the Baltic
shore, witnesses saw in a pale blue light the image of Stralsund looming
over the Isle of Rugen on the opposite shore for a period of 15 minutes.
The image was clear enough that details of the facade of the Gothic church
of St. Mary could be "distinguished with ease."
September 27--During the exhibition of a panoramic model
of Edinburgh, in the Zoological Gardens at Liverpool, about 3 P.M., an erect
image of Edinburgh, depicted on the clouds over Liverpool, was seen by two
residents in the Great Park at Birkenhead, for a period of forty minutes."
Edinburgh is about 325 kilometers north of Liverpool.
Marx and Engles publish the Communist Manifesto (allegedly
commissioned by the Illuminati) and travel in France and Germany encouraging
discontent with the Establishment.
Spiritualism born in Wayne County, New York, when the
teenaged Fox sisters communicate with poltergeists.
Fortean tidbits: moon turns "blood-red" during
total eclipse; a great comet fails to return at the time predicted; visions
and "phantom soldiers" seen in the skies of France and Scotland.
August 6--The most famous sea-serpent report of all
time. The witnesses were the captain and crew of the frigate Daedalus,
on their way back to England from the Cape of Good Hope. Soon after its
arrival at Plymouth on October 4, several newspapers reported rumors of
a spectacular 20-minute sea-serpent sighting, and the Admiralty asked Peter
M'Quhae, the captain, to supply a report either denying or detailing the
incident. On the eleventh M'Quhae wrote Adm. Sir W. H. Gage a letter which
the Times of London reprinted two days later. It reads in part: The object
... was discovered to be an enormous serpent, with head and shoulders kept
about four feet constantly above the surface of the sea, and as nearly as
we could approximate by comparing it with the length of what our main-topsail
yard would show in the water, there was at the very least 60 feet of the
animal [above water], no portion of which was, to our perception, used in
propelling it through the water, either by vertical or horizontal undulation.
It passed rapidly, but so close under our lee quarter, that had it been
a man of my acquaintance, I should easily have recognized his features with
the naked eye; and it did not, either in approaching the ship or after it
passed our wake, deviate in the slightest degree from its course to the
S.W., which it held on at the pace of from 12 to 15 miles per hour, apparently
on some determined purpose. The diameter of the serpent was about 15 or
16 inches behind the head, which was, without any doubt, that of a snake,
and it was never, during the 20 minutes that it continued in sight of our
glasses, once below the surface of the water; its color a dark brown, with
yellowish white about the throat. It had no fins, but something like the
mane of a horse, or rather a bunch of seaweed, washed about its back. It
was seen by the quartermaster, the boatswain's mate, and the man at the
wheel, in addition to myself and officers above mentioned. The Zoologist
soon afterwards published the private notes of another witness, Lt. Edgar
Drummond, who confirmed M'Quhae's account in all particulars but one. What
M'Quhae had called a mane Drummond deemed a dorsal fin. Ten years later
another officer recalled the incident in a letter to the Times. "My
impression," he wrote, "was that it was rather of a lizard than
a serpentine character, as its movement was steady and uniform, as if propelled
by fins, not by any undulatory power."
Anthony Vaughan returns to Oak Island with the Truro
Syndicate. They dig numerous shafts, bore several holes and get ripped off
by their foreman.
A female Alma is captured in the Ochamchir region. She
resembled a Neanderthal rather than a human, with unusual features and a
full coat of hair from head to toe. She was also very powerful, and could
easily outrun even horses, and swim across fast flowing rivers. While in
captivity she gave birth to several children, who were also physically tougher
than normal and dark skinned, but with no other apparent unusual characteristics.
She was named "Zama". (She is able to bear children fathered by
The Truro Syndicate uncovers the drain system that keeps
flooding the pit.
The most numerous vitrified remains in the New World
are located in the western United States. In this year, the American explorer
Captain Ives William Walker was the first to view some of these ruins, situated
in Death Valley. He discovered a city about a mile long, with the lines
of the streets and the positions of the buildings still visible. At the
center he found a huge rock, between 20 to 30 feet high, with the remains
of an enormous structure atop it. The southern side of both the rock and
the building was melted and vitrified. Walker assumed that a volcano had
been responsible for this phenomenon, but there is no volcano in the area.
In addition, tectonic heat could not have caused such a liquefication of
the rock surface. An associate of Captain Walker who followed up his initial
exploration commented: "The whole region between the rivers Gila and
San Juan is covered with remains. The ruins of cities are to be found there
which must be most extensive, and they are burnt out and vitrified in part,
full of fused stones and craters caused by fires which were hot enough to
liquefy rock or metal. There are paving stones and houses torn with monstrous
cracks [as though they had] been attacked by a giant's fire-plough."
These vitrified ruins in Death Valley sound fascinating--but do they really
exist? There certainly is evidence of ancient civilizations in the area.
In Titus Canyon, petroglyphs and inscriptions have been scratched into the
walls by unknown prehistoric hands. Some experts think the graffiti might
have been made by people who lived here long before the Indians we know
of, because extant Indians know nothing of the glyphs and, indeed, regard
them with superstitious awe.
February 7-- Among the world's great mysteries is the
case of the devil's footprints. Unfortunately, the documentation is not
entirely satisfactory, but no one disputes that something out of the ordinary
took place just after a snowfall on the night of February 7,1855, in Devonshire,
England. As The Times of London reported: "Considerable sensation has
been evoked in the towns of Topsham, Lympstone, Exmouth, Teignmouth, and
Dawlish, in the south of Devon, in consequence of the discovery of a vast
number of foot-tracks of a most strange and mysterious description. The
superstitious go so far as to believe that they are the marks of Satan himself;
and that great excitement has been produced among all classes may be judged
from the fact that the subject has been descanted on from the pulpit. It
appears that on Thursday night last there was a very heavy fall of snow
in the neighborhood of Exeter and the south of Devon. On the following morning,
the inhabitants of the above towns were surprised at discovering the tracks
of some strange and mysterious animal, endowed with the power of ubiquity,
as the foot-prints were to be seen in all kinds of inaccessible places-on
the tops of houses and narrow walls, in gardens and courtyards enclosed
by high walls and palings, as well as in open fields. There was hardly a
garden in Lympstone where the foot-prints were not observed. The track appeared
more like that of a biped than a quadruped, and the steps were generally
eight inches in advance of each other. The impressions of the feet closely
resembled that of a donkey's shoe, and measured from an inch and a half
to (in some instances) two and a half inches across. Here and there it appeared
as if cloven, but in the generality of the steps the shoe was continuous,
and, from the snow in the center remaining entire, merely showing the outer
crest of the foot, it must have been convex (concave?). The creature seems
to have approached the doors of several houses and then to have retreated,
but no one has been able to discover the standing or resting point of this
mysterious visitor. On Sunday last the Rev. Mr. Musgrave alluded to the
subject in his sermon, and suggested the possibility of the footprints being
those of a kangaroo; but this could scarcely have been the case, as they
were found on both sides of the estuary of the Exe. At present it remains
a mystery, and many superstitious people in the above towns are actually
afraid to go outside their doors after night." The Times had nothing
more to say on the subject. The most detailed accounts, in fact virtually
the only detailed accounts, are to be found in letters to the editor of
Illustrated London News from locals who reported on what they saw, heard
about, or believed about the enigmatic prints, which covered some 100 miles
over a zigzag course. Of a general horseshoe shape, each track was, correspondents
claimed, exactly eight and a half inches apart. Then and later theorists
would offer all kinds of candidates for print-maker: mouse, rat, swan, rabbit,
deer, badger, otter, toad, donkey, and kangaroo. But if the accounts-never
investigated by any independent authority-of what the tracks looked like
and where they went are accurate, none of these candidates works.
Report from Louisiana, Shreveport: "Our attention
was called to a strange light in the heavens. On going out into the gallery
we had a magnificent view of it. It appeared to the naked eye, about 300
yards in length, extending from north to west appearing just above the tallest
trees. Its color was that of a red hot stove from the center beautiful rays
resembling those of the sun drawing water would ascend to a considerable
height, the whole presenting a very beautiful and sublime appearance. We
watched it for about an hour without perceiving it to change any."
Jacolliot writes about the Nine Unknown in Calcutta.
A shipwrecked Danish sailor in the Indian Ocean reported
seeing a strange aircraft as large as a battleship with four huge wings.
This object was seen to crash into a cliff and was destroyed.
Assassination of Lincoln; Andrew Johnson becomes president;
"Booth" killed; coded message found among his effects; the code
key later found in possession of Benjamin, alleged Rothschild agent.
New evidence suggests that an alien spacecraft crashed
in the Cadotte Pass area of Missouri sometime in September of 1865. The
man discovering the crashed UFO was a fur trapper named James Lumley, who
told newspapers he saw a "bright, luminous body in the heavens"
suddenly burst into flames in the middle of the night. The day after the
sighting, Lumley reportedly discovered a bizarre giant stone-like object
about two miles from his camp that was decorated with weird hieroglyphics
Newspapers from the time report that the giant "space rock" was
so fragile that it blew to bits before Lumley could take it to scientists
for an examination.
Mid September--A UFO crashed in what was to become the
state of Montana.
"Ku Klux Klan" founded as a social club in
Death of Phineas Quimby, magnetic healer, founder of
Free Thought movement, teacher of Mary Baker Eddy.
Ku Klux Klan reorganized along political and racial
lines near Nashville, Tennessee.
David Macdill's Secret Societies.
English Rosicrucian Society founded by Wentworth Little.
Little was in contact with the German Rosicrucians. He recruited his followers,
to the number of 144, from the ranks of the higher-ranking Freemasons.
Chile, Copiago: A strange "aerial construction
bearing lights and making engine noises" flew low over this town. Local
people also described it as a giant bird covered with large scales producing
a metallic noise. Although not an actual landing, this is the first instance
of close observation of an unknown object at low altitude in the nineteenth
A Tippah County, Mississippi, school teacher recorded
the following in the fall of 1868: "A sad casualty occurred at my school
a few days ago. The eagles have been very troublesome in the neighborhood
for some time past, carrying off pigs, lambs, &c. No one thought that
they would attempt to prey upon children; but on Thursday, at recess, the
little boys were out some distance from the house, playing marbles, when
their sport was interrupted by a large eagle sweeping down and picking up
little Jemmie Kenney, a boy of eight years, and when I got out of the house,
the eagle was so high that I could just hear the child screaming. The eagle
was induced to drop his victim; but his talons had been buried in him so
deeply, and the fall was so great, that he was killed-or either would have
July 25/26 -1868 - A UFO over Sydney, New South Wales,
Australia. A local surveyor was invited to board this incredible flying
machine by its strange pilot. (Marsfield -Sydney-N.S.W.-Named after the
craft landed on the ground near Ryde,)- There were marks on the ground where
the UFO landed. - Burn marks...The suburb was named "Marsfield"
after the "Men from Mars" as was typical for the 1800's.
St. Germain allegedly completes 85 years in the Himalayas
after his "death."
Tennessee, Ashland: A whirlwind came along over the
neighboring woods, taking up small branches and leaves of trees and burring
them in a sort of flaming cylinder that traveled at a rate of about five
miles an hour, developing size as it traveled. It passed directly over the
spot where a team of horses were feeding and singed their manes and tails
up to the roots; it then swept towards the house, taking a stack of hay
in its course. It seemed to increase in heat as it went, and by the time
it reached the house it immediately fired the shingles from end to end of
the building, so that in ten minutes the whole dwelling was wrapped in flames.
The tall column of traveling caloric then continued its course over a wheat
field that had been recently cradled, setting fire to all the stacks that
happened to be in its course. Passing from the field, its path lay over
a stretch of woods, which reached the river. The green leaves on the trees
were crisped to a cinder for a breadth of 20 yards, in a straight line to
the Cumberland. When the "pillar of fire" reached the water, it
suddenly changed its route down the river, raising a column of steam which
went up to the clouds for about half-a-mile, when it finally died out. Not
less than 200 people witnessed this strangest of strange phenomena, and
all of them tell substantially the same story about it. From Symon's Monthly
Meteorological Magazine, 1869
Mazzini and Pike reached an agreement for the creation
of the new supreme rite, to be called the New and Reformed Palladian Rite.
Pike was to be called the Sovereign Pontiff of Universal Freemasonry, and Mazzini was to be called Sovereign Chief
of Political Action. Pike was to draw up the statutes and grades.
A "monster bird, something like the condor of Sinbad
the Sailor," landed on a barn owned by James Pepples in rural Stanford,
Kentucky. Pepples fired on the creature, wounding it, and took it into captivity.
A contemporary press account says, "On measurement, the bird proved
to be seven feet from tip to tip. It was of a black color, and both similar
and dissimilar in many ways, to an eagle." Nothing is known of its
Colonel James Churchward, a former Bengal Lancer and
a big game hunter, announced he had learned of a lost continent named Mu,
once located in the Pacific Ocean with its center just south of the equator.
Churchward said he learned this from secret, ancient clay and stone tablets
hidden in India, which had been revealed to him by a Hindu priest.
A correspondent to a California newspaper, the Antioch
Ledger, reported that the year before, he had seen a "gorilla, or wild
man, or whatever you choose to call it," in the bush. Its head, he
wrote, "appeared to be set on [the creature's] shoulders without a
neck--a detail echoed by virtually every modern witness. On the other hand,
the correspondent mentioned a decidedly uncharacteristic anatomical feature:
"very short legs." If this animal existed outside the writer's
imagination, it may well have been a (presumably escaped) gorilla; it could
also have been a chimpanzee.
March 22--From the log account of a ship's captain,
F. W. Banner: In the equatorial waters of the Atlantic Ocean, the sailors
of the English corvette Lady of the Lake saw a remarkable object or cloud
in the sky. It was a cloud of circular form, with an included semi-circle
divided into four parts, the central dividing shaft beginning at the center
of the circle and extending far outward, and then curving backward. The
thing traveled from a point 20 degrees above the horizon to a point about
80 degrees above. Then it settled down to the northeast, having appeared
from the south, southeast. It came up obliquely against the wind, and finally
settled down in the wind's eye. For half an hour this form was visible,
then it finally did disappear.
G.B. Scott reports hearing "The Barisal Guns"
in the Sundarbans, near the mouth of the Ganges.
Albert Pike publishes the 861-page Morals and Dogma
of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry.
Medium and Hollow Earth supporter M. L. Sherman brought
out The Hollow Globe, based on supposed communications from the dead.
Marie Celeste is found abandoned.
The "Bohemian Grove" group was established
by San Franciscans, played an equally significant role in shaping post-war
politics in the US. It was at the Grove, it is said, that the Manhattan
Project was set up and that Eisenhower was selected as the Republicans'
candidate for 1952.
Texas, Bonham: A huge cigar-shaped object swooped low
over the town of on two occasions and in broad daylight. It then disappeared
quickly to the east.
Sidney Reilly is born as Georgi aka Sigmund Rosenblum
Mexico, Oaxaca: Residents saw a huge, gently swaying,
trumpet-shaped object estimated to be 425 feet long hovering in the sky
for six minutes.
Madam Blavatsky founds "Theosophy Society".
1875 to 1947
Life of Aleister Crowley, the "Great Beast",
Golden Dawn leader and occult figure.
Vertebrae "larger than those of the present type"
found in Wisconsin mounds.
James Bryce of Oxford University came upon a four-foot
long stick near the peak of Great Ararat. He declared it to be a piece of
Explorer Charles Barrington Brown wrote of a creature
called the Didi. This creature, according to Brown, was a wild man which
dwelt in the forests of British Guiana (today's Guyana). He said that on
several occasions he had heard its cries, and on others he had seen footprints
identified as coming from the creature.
First of seven wills in which Cecil Rhodes leaves his
money to establish a secret society to expand British rule throughout the
Prospectors near the head of Spring Valley (not far
from Eureka, Nevada) found a human leg bone and kneecap sticking out of
solid rock dated geologically be from the Jurassic Period, over 185 million
years old. Doctors determined that they were from a very modern-looking
human being that stood over 12 feet tall.
Skull bones "of great size and thickness"
unearthed in mounds of Kansas City area.
Schiaparelli reports canali on Mars
Spring Heeled Jack makes an appearance at Aldershot
September 18-- A "winged human form" was observed
over Brooklyn, according to the New York Sun.
1878 to 1945
Life of Edgar Cayce, visionary, trance-channeler who
spoke of reincarnation, Egyptian mysteries, and Atlantis.
John Martin, a Texas farmer, spotted a fast moving dark
object high in the southern sky. When it passed overhead, he saw that it
was the size of a "large saucer". It continued on its way and
was soon lost to view. In recounting the event, a local newspaper remarked,
"Mr. Martin is a gentleman of undoubted veracity and this strange occurrence,
if it was not a balloon, deserves the attention of our scientists".
An Englishwoman named Mrs. Turner was aboard the liner
Poonah anchored off Suez or Aden; she could not remember which when she
related her experience to Robert P. Greg, who subsequently wrote a letter
to Oudemans. She observed an extraordinary animal motionless on the surface
150 feet away. Greg wrote, "She saw both the head and 7 or 8 fins of
the back, all at the same time in a line. She cannot remember exactly how
many dorsal fins there were, but they were large, slightly curved back and
not all the same size.... The head looked 4-6 feet diameter, like a large
tree trunk.... The color was nearly black like a whale. The whole length
appeared considerable, perhaps as long as an ordinary tree, or moderate
October 24--The Louisville, Kentucky Courier-Journal,
a 'Wild Man of the Woods' was captured, supposedly, in Tennessee, and then
placed on exhibit in Louisville. The creature was described as being six
feet, five inches tall, and having eyes twice the normal size. His body
was "covered with scales."
"Hermtic Order of the Rising Day" founded.
Many mambers latter form Arcanum.
Persian Gulf: The S.S. Vulture crew reported in the
Persian Gulf, two luminous rotating wheels, about 130 ft. across, seen above
the water before diving
A 9-foot, 8-inch skeleton was excavated from a mount
near Brewersville, Indiana.
Beginning of Saint-Yves d'Alveydre's activity. Leopold
Engler reorganizes the Illuminati of Bavaria.
"A skeleton which is reported to have been of enormous
dimensions" was found in a clay coffin, with a sandstone slab containing
hieroglyphics, during mound explorations by a Dr Everhart near Zanesville,
Members of the crew of the British India Company's steamship
Patna witnessed two large luminous wheels each estimated to be 500 to 600
meters in diameter. The wheels were spinning, one on each side of the ship,
and the spokes touching the ship. The sighting lasted 20 minutes and was
witnessed by Captain Avern, third officer Manning, and Lee Fort Brace.
New Mexico, Lamy: Four men walking near Galisteo Junction
were surprised as they heard voices coming from a "strange balloon,"
which flew over them. It was shaped like a fish and seemed to be guided
by a large fanlike device. There were eight to ten figures aboard. Their
language was not understood. The object flew low over Galisteo Junction
and rose rapidly toward the east.
September 12--The New York Times remarked on reports
from Coney Island of a "man with bat's wings and improved frog's legs
... at least a thousand feet in the air ... flying toward the New Jersey
coast ... (with) a cruel and determined expression."
September 23--At about 3:30 in the afternoon farmer
David Lang dematerialized in front of five witnesses while walking across
a field near Gallatin, Tennessee. Mrs. Lang ran and pounded the ground where
he had vanished. Seven months later Lang's children insisted that they had
heard their father crying distantly from uderneath the field. He seemed
desperate and tortured, and was begging for help, until his voice faded
away and was not heard again. Where he was last seen there was a circle
of withered yellow grass 20 feet in diameter.
The first stories of the Alma were gathered by N. M.
Pzewalski, a traveler in Mongolia who also discovered the Mongolian wild
Georgia, Americus: Mr. Z. T. Baisden, of Americus, gives
us the following story of a whirlwind that visited his place, scaring all
his hands and some visitors very badly. A whirlwind occurred in a twelve
acre cornfield that was about four feet in diameter and sometimes a hundred
feet high. The body of it was perfectly black, with fire in the center and
emitted a strong sulphurous vapor that could be smelt three hundred yards
form it. The whirlwind would divide into three and move rapidly over the
field, twisting up the corn stalks by the roots and carrying them up. These
three minor whirlwinds would then come together with a loud crash, cracking
and burning and shoot high up into the heavens. Three young ladies who were
visiting Mrs. Baisden went in about 150 feet to observe it, but received
such a shower of burning sand upon their face and necks that they ran affrighted
to the house. Mr. Baisden says that he cannot account for this strange phenomenon,
and it certainly frightened all who saw it. The strange part was that it
contained fire, yet did not appear to burn the corn that it did not tear
up, and its sulphurous vapor sickened and burnt all who got close enough
to get a full breath of it.
June 11--In the Cruise of the Bacchante, a work compiled
from the journals of the late King George V of England (then Duke of York)
and his brother Prince Albert Victor, is reported the sighting of a phantom
ship. The brothers served as midshipmen on H.M.S. Bacchante's round the
world voyage between1879 and 1882. At 4 A.M. on June 11, 1881, while the
vessel was sailing to Sydney from Melbourne, Australia, the late King's
diary says an eerie red light was noticed. His account follows: "In
the midst of the red light, the masts, spars and sails of a brig two hundred
yards distant stood out in strong relief as she came up on the port bow.
The lookout in the forecastle reported her as close to the bow, while also
the officer of the watch from the bridge clearly saw her. So did the quarterdeck
midshipman, was sent forward at once to the forecastle; but on arriving,
there was no vestige or sign of any material ship. The night was clear and
the sea calm. Thirteen persons altogether saw her. Two other ships of the
squadron, the Tourmaline and the Cleopatra, who were sailing off our starboard
bow, asked whether we had seen the strange red light."
England: A huge UFO, the first such phenomenon which
was characteristically saucer-shaped in Europe, was plainly observed by
numerous people in England and other parts of Europe during the night. It
was seen to travel in the sky at an approximate altitude of 130 miles in
an east-west direction. A number of eminent scientists witnessed the object,
among them being Dr E Walter Maunder, Greenwich astronomer; English spectroscopist,
J Rand Capron; Dutch astronomers Audemans and Zeeman. The Royal Observatory,
Greenwich published a report of the conclusions reached by scientists, following
the appearance of what had been termed, "The Great Saucer". The
report had this to say: "It appeared to be well defined in body and
the inference drawn was that it was a meteor, not in the old vague sense
of some object high in the Earth's atmosphere, but in the sense of a solid
cosmological substance, disc-like in appearance, the orbit of which brought
it within the terrestrial atmosphere. But nothing could be more unlike the
rush of a great meteor or fireball, with intense radiance and fiery train.
The advance of this object, though swift, appeared to be orderly and controlled.
There was no sign of the compression of the atmosphere before it, no hint
that the matter composing its front part, was in anyway more strongly heated
than the rest of its substance, if substance, indeed it possessed."
August 12--Armada Of Discs. Astronomer Jose Bonilla,
at Zacatecas, Mexico Observatory, witnessed anywhere from 100-400 disc-shaped
or cigar shaped objects crossing the face of the sun. He even managed to
take a photograph through his telescope of one of the craft.
An account of "an extraordinary saurian" killed
along the Rio Beni in what is now Bolivia appearanced in such a prestigious
publication as Scientific American. The account describes a tri-headed monster
nearly 40 feet in length.
Ten skeletons "of both sexes and of gigantic size"
were taken from a mound at Warren, Minnesota.
A small hominoid is captured near Victoria, British
"Fabian Society" founded in London by Sidney
and Beatrice Webb and others.
A skeleton 7 feet 6 inches long was found in a massive
stone structure that was likened to a temple chamber within a mound in Kanawha
County, West Virginia.
Pope Leo XIII issued a proclamation stating that Masonry
was one of the secret societies attempting to "revive the manners and
customs of the pagans" and "establish Satan's kingdom on Earth."
June 6--Holdredge's weekly newspaper, the Nebraska Nugget
published a story that had occurred to some cowboys from Dundy County, of
a cylindrical object that crashed on the prairie about 35 miles northwest
of Benkelman, Dundy County, and left bits of machinery and gear wheels behind,
glowing from the heat. A terrifying noise in the sky drew their attention
to a bright object diving towards the ground before it crashed, out of sight
from where the cowboys were. They had then rushed over to it and discovered
numerous burning hot "machinery parts" spread out all along a
track left by the mysterious flying object. The heat was so unbearable that
one of the witnesses, Alf Williamson, had even fainted. At one point of
the track, the sand had melted over a surface area of about 6x22yards. Finding
it impossible to approach the mysterious visitor (the UFO) the party turned
back on it's trail. When it (the UFO) first touched the earth the ground
was sandy and bare of grass. The sand was fused to an unknown depth over
a space about 20 feet wide by 30 feet long, and the melted stuff was still
bubbling and hissing." The next morning, a group goes back to the site.
Certain pieces are now cool enough to get close to. According to The Nebraska
Nugget, the metal they are made up of resembles copper but is extremely
light and resistant. As for the spaceship, of cylindrical form, the men
estimate its length to be about twenty meters long by about 3.5 yards wide.
There is no established certainty concerning the nature of this affair:
it is probably a hoax, but it is not a certainty. It could indeed be an
account of a crash of a flying machine, inevitably extraterrestrial due
to the event's date.
December 13--Possible UFO crash in Sorisole, near Bergamo,
Beranger Sauniere becomes the Cure of the village church
In a block of coal considered to be 60 million years
old, a strange man-made cast iron cube (2.64 ¥ 2.64 ¥ 1.85 inches,
1.73 pounds, non-meteoric, non-pyrite ) was found embedded.
A large mound near Gasterville, Pennsylvania, contained
a vault in which was found a skeleton measuring 7 feet 2 inches. Inscriptions
were carved on the vault.
Miners discovered the mummified remains of woman measuring
6 feet 8 inches tall holding an infant. The mummies were found in a cave
behind a wall of rock in the Yosemite Valley.
November 1--Turkey, Constantinople: From L'Astronomie:
M. Mavrogordato, calls our attention to the following strange observations
which have been communicated to him, "at 9:30pm, there was seen, west
of Adrianople, an elongated object giving off a strong luminosity. It seemed
to float in the air and its apparent disk was four or five times larger
than the full moon. It traveled slowly and cast light on the whole camp
behind the station with a brightness about ten times greater than a large
electric bulb. In the morning, at dawn, a very luminous flame, first bluish,
then greenish, and moving at a height of five to six meters, made a series
of turns around the ferryboat pier at Scutari. Its blinding luminosity lighted
the street and flooded the inside of the houses with light."
Tesla tests a "death ray" (EM weapon) in Colorado
Springs, Colorado, and all electrical apparatus in Colorado were disabled
during the tests.
First written Sasquatch report from Siskiyou, California.
October 24--During the night, which was rainy and tempestuous,
a family of nine persons, sleeping in a hut a few leagues from Maracaibo,
Venezuela, were awakened by a loud humming noise and a vivid, dazzling light,
which brilliantly illuminated the interior of the house. The occupants completely
terror stricken, and believing, as they relate, that the end of the world
had come, threw themselves on their knees and commenced to pray, but their
devotions were almost immediately interrupted by violent vomiting, and extensive
swellings commenced to appear in the upper part of their bodies, this being
particularly noticeable about the face and lips. It is to be noted that
the brilliant lights was not accompanied by a sensation of heat, although
there was a smoky appearance and a peculiar smell. The next morning, the
swellings had subsided, leaving upon the face and body large black blotches.
No trace of lightning could afterward by observed in any part of the building,
and all the sufferers unite in saying that there was no detonation, but
only the loud humming already mentioned. Another curious attendant circumstance
is that the trees around the house showed no signs of injury until the ninth
day, when they suddenly withered. From Warner Cowgill, U. S. Consulate,
Maracaibo, Venezuela in a letter posted in Scientific American.
An American prospector, Mr. Willoughby, claimed he heard
an Indian legend of a city appearing in the sky each summer near Mount Fairweather,
on the Alaska-Yukon border. Mr. Willoughby said he first saw the mirage
in 1887 and offered a photograph as proof that the phenomenon was real.
In 1889, the New York Times reported that the city in Willoughby's photograph
had been identified as Bristol, England.
The "Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn" is
founded in England by Dr. William W. Westcott, MacGregor Mathers and Dr.
William Robert Woodman. The order was supposedly a rebirth of a Rosicrucian
order from Nuremberg, Germany. The Golden Dawn was an offshoot of the English
Rosicrucian Society created twenty years earlier by Robert Wentworth Little,
and consisted largely of leading Freemasons. During its heyday the Order
of the Golden Dawn formulated and taught the basics of current magickal
practice to Western Civilization. It's own sources were Masonic, Rosicrucian,
Qaballistic, and the ceremonial practices of the medieval magickians.
Under the orders of Fraulein Sprengle, Dr. Westcott
founds the English branch of "Die Goldene Dammerung", or the "Isis-Urania
Temple of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn". He is joined by Dr.
Woodcott and MacGregor Mathers.
In Minnesota, were discovered remains of seven skeletons
7 to 8 feet tall.
Five Whitechapel prostitutes are murdered, allegedly
by "Jack the Ripper"
Maj. L. A. Waddell became the first Westerner to come
upon a mysterious humanlike footprint in the Himalayan snows. His Sherpa
guides told him that the track, found at 17,000 feet, was from a hairy wild
man of a sort long known to them. "The belief in these creatures is
universal among Tibetans," Waddell wrote in Among the Himalayas (1899),
but none with whom he spoke "could ever give me an authentic case.
On the most superficial investigation it always resolved into something
that somebody had heard tell of." He was sure these creatures were
in fact "great yellow snow-bears."
Mrs S.W. Culp broke open a 300 million year old Pennsylvanian
era chunk of coal collected from the Taylorsville or Pana mines, and found
embedded within a 10 inch, eight-carat gold chain "of antique workmanship."
according to the Morrisonville Times, June 11, 1891.
Zama dies, leaving behind numerous half human/half Alma
Biologist Yersin visits India, purportedly to receive
plague and cholera serum from the Nine Unknown.
In the early American frontier town of Tombstone, Arizona
two cowboys claimed to have shot a pterodactyl-like animal and cut off its
wing. The local paper recorded a description of the animal that fits the
Quetzelcoatlus, whose fossils were found in Texas. This could be a "Thunderbird,"
the flying reptile of Sioux American Indian legends who was given its name
because it was hit by lightning and seen to fall to the ground during a
The foundations of the "Round Table Society",
eventually to be funded by Cecil Rhodes and the Rothschilds to gain financial
and political power, are laid by a meeting of representatives of the U.S.,
Canada, Australia, India, South Africa and New Zealand.
Nikola Tesla invents the Tesla Coil.
Sauniere begins to renovate the church at Rennes le
Chateau. He finds something, which causes the Bishop of Carcassone to send
Sauniere to consult scholars and cryptographers. Sauniere returns and continues
to renovate the church. He becomes very wealthy.
September 5-- As reported in the Brooklyn Eagle newspaper,
two icemen were working outside in Crawfordsville, Indiana at about 2:00am,
when a bizarre object sailed overhead. The icemen described the UFO as a
'seemingly headless monster', although there is no reason to believe that
it was an animal of any kind. It was about 20ft long, and 8ft wide, moving
in the sky toward the two men, and 'seemingly propelled by fin like attachments.'
The men moved, and the UFO flew off. The noise awoke Methodist pastor G.W.
Swittze, who saw it circling in the sky.
February--The ship, H.M.S. Carolina was sailing in the
North China Sea, when a report from an officer of unusual light activity
in the sky came to the attention of Captain J.N. Norcross. The officer told
Captain Norcross that the lights appeared sometimes in a huge mass, others
spread out in unusual patterns. He said that they resembled Chinese lanterns
set between the masts of a ship. The next night these strange lights reappeared
but with a reddish glow and eminating small amounts of smoke.
A mound near Toledo, Ohio, held 20 skeletons, seated
and facing east with jaws and teeth "twice as large as those of present
day people," and besides each was a large bowl with "curiously
wrought hieroglyphic figures."
Herbert Coles and Dunham Coretter, two St. Augustine,
Florida, residents, found something lying on the beach of Anastasia Island
which would quickly become the center of controversy. The object was a huge
fleshy mass some four feet tall, 23 feet long, and 18 feet across. A group
of investigators from the St. Augustine Historical Society and Institute
of Science, led by DeWitt Webb, determined that the mass had been beached
for several days. The team also found pieces of what seemed to be tentacles:
was the creature a giant octopus or a giant squid? In 1957, scientists proved
it was some sort of octopi from preserved tissue samples. Folktales circulate
in the neighboring Bahamas of creatures called lusca, which are reputed
to be gigantic, octopi-like creatures inhabiting deep waterholes. Could
these legends be based on sightings of monsters like those of St. Augustine
First "flap year" for UFOs: wave of sightings
of unidentified airships in U.S. November 26--The great Airship Flap of
1897 actually started in late 1896 in San Francisco. Hundreds saw a large,
cigar-shaped object, shining brilliant beams of light, and moving northwest
passing over Oakland. An airship that looked like a great black cigar with
a fishlike tail neared Lorin tremendous speed. It turned quickly and disappeared
in the direction of San Francisco. The body was at least 100 feet long and
attached to it was a triangular tail, one apex being attached to the main
body. The surface of the airship looked as if it were made of aluminum,
which exposure to wind and weather had turned dark. At half past 8 we saw
it again, when it took about the same direction and disappeared." From
the Oakland Tribune, Dec 1. 1896.
Avtar Singh-Gida disappears.
Sworn statement from Alexander Hamilton, at his farm
in LeRoy, Kansas: "Last night about 10:30 we were awakened by a noise
among the cattle. I arose, thinking that perhaps my bulldog was performing
his pranks, but upon going to the door saw to my utter astionishment that
an airship was slowly descending upon my cow lot, about 40 rods from the
house" Hamilton also described it as a cigar shaped portion, about
300 feet long with a carriage underneath. The carriage was of some transparent
material. It was brightly lighted within. It contained six on the strangest
beings he had ever seen. .
April--"Airship" Mania Breaks Out Across Nation.
The state of Illinois was inundated with airship reports during April 1897.
The first known sighting was in Nashville, Illinois, as a balloon-like airship
with a large red light was spotted at 8 p.m. by many residents. On April
8th, a Rock Island police officer claimed that while on his east end beat,
he was startled by the illuminated vessel a half mile overhead. He described
it as having "a glittering steel hull, with dim wing-like fans on either
side, and it swayed gently in its flight." On April 9th hundreds of
people observed it over Chicago, Evanston, Niles Center and Schermerville.
On the night of April 10th, scores of Jacksonville residents watched the
airship pass over the city. "It was seen by all the police officers
on duty, the firemen and hundreds of citizens." By the evening of the
11th, the sightings reached Springfield as Richard Schriver, foreman of
the county jail, watched it for 30 minutes with another man. It was described
as "a radiating light not unlike a locomotive headlight." At 8
p.m. in Lincoln on April 12th, "More than fifty people stood on Pulaski
street and whenever the lightening flashed and the clouds separated"
they thought they could discern the airship's light in the distance. On
April 13th, more than 200 people saw its white and green lights as it passed
near Lincoln at 8 p.m., while 30 minutes later it was seen over Moline by
several farmers including Benjamin Carr who said it was "a cigar-shaped
body or hull, apparently about 15 feet long, with large wing-like projections
on each side." These are just a handful of hundreds of Illinois sightings
that occurred during April. Not only are there striking parallels between
the airship wave and present-day UFO reports - but there were also reports
of close encounters. I will briefly mention three Illinois close encounter
cases. Keep in mind that they are just three of many from Illinois and across
the nation during 1897. According to the Decatur Daily Republican of April
16, 1897, p. 1, the airship landed near Springfield the previous night.
Farmhand John Halley and local vineyard owner Adolf Wenke said that it landed
three miles west of the city along the Jefferson street road. They said
a long-bearded man emerged and inquired where he was. "Inside the car
was seated another man and also the scientist's wife." He said they
usually rested during the daytime in remote parts of the country in order
to conceal the vessel's huge wings. When they asked the scientist his name,
"he smiled and pointed to the letter M., which was painted on the side
car." After bidding the farmers farewell, he pressed a button and the
ship flew off. The Springfield News also reported on an airship touching
down near Carlinville on April 12th. It was reportedly spotted between the
town of Nilwood and Girard about 6:15. William Street, Frank Metcalf and
Ed Temples and the telegraph operator all saw it at Girard. "These
men saw it alight, and a man get out and fix some part of the machinery.
They started for the place where it had alighted, but within a quarter of
a mile it rose and disappeared from view" to the north. Elburn, Kane
County, on April 10th. According to a report on the front page of the Rockford
Daily Republic of April 12th, "Trainmen running through there say that
the operator says that some stockmen say that some farmers say that the
ship had a breakdown near there and came down for repairs."
Olof Ohman digs up a Viking runic stone in Kensington,
Morgan Robertson writes Futility (apparently republished
as The Wreck of the Titan; or Futility in 1912), a horror story about a
luxury ocean liner hitting an iceberg and sinking.
Bechtel is a supersecret international corporate octopus,
founded in 1898. Some say the firm is really a 'Shadow Government'--a working
arm of the CIA.
Tesla discovers terrestrial stationary waves which can
produce electricity; reports receiving signals from another planet.
Alleged meeting in England at which the J.P. Morgan,
Rothschilds and Warburgs become affiliated.
South Africa: After alerting its telegraph offices to
be on the lookout for invading British aircraft, the Transvaal government
was inundated with sighting reports. Phantom airships, often equipped with
powerful searchlights, mysteriously appeared in the skies around. Of course,
neither aircraft nor airplanes were known to exist in Africa at this time.
Tesla suggests alien beings might be living "in
the very midst of us." Tesla tests his wireless transmission of energy
in Colorado Springs. Dynamos of a Colorado electricity company were disabled
6 miles away. In the old Spanish Garavanza district or Los Angeles, where
Avenue 64 and York Boulevard now lie, there used to be a ranch owned by
Ralph Rodgers who had employed several Mexican and Chinese workers. In early
1900, Andrew C. Smith and Charles A. Elder discovered a rumored tunnel entrance
in the area and reported it to the local newspaper, whose editor confirmed
their story. They explored the tunnel to some depth. They also learned from
a Mexican elder of a native American village that existed on the banks of
the Arroyo Seco River. When the Spanish entered the area this man, Juan
Dominquez, had explored the tunnel "leading to a gigantic cave and
then still going further down", spreading under the entire village
of Garavanza and connecting to the Spanish Church of the Angels on North
Avenue 64. One entrance was reportedly located along the west bluff of Arroyo
Seco River about 300 feet south of the former Pasadena Ave. Rail Bridge,
and about 20 feet above the stream, but the city "blew up" the
entrance after children were hurt in the cave, and a Freeway exists now
in the area, however a secret opening still exists in the basement of the
Spanish church mentioned above. Early visitors to the cave had reported
"many caverns and tunnels going deep down, with eerie voices coming
from them." The cave used to be used by natives for ritual purposes.
Approximate date Adolf Lanz founded the "Order
of New Templars", a forerunner of the Nazi mentality.
Teenager Miranda McKay and three other girls, plus their
Scottish chaperone from Appleyard College boarding school, disappear at
Hanging Rock, near Melbourne, Australia. A Mystery to this day.