Was born in 1901 in Nagybanya
(Later Called Baia Mare) in the Carpathian Mountains in Hungary. It was
a very small town then - about 4,000 Population. (See picture above)
He and his brother reached
New York in 1921 as immigrants. Both brothers entered Michigan University
the same year after learning English the fast way. Gabriel Kron later took
a job with the Lincoln Electric Company in Cleveland and presented his first
paper in 1930. In 1934 He joined General Electric and worked there in various
departments, all concerned with applied engineering.
It was there that he talked
about the "Negative Resistor". His notes about the Negative Resistor
went largely unnoticed. While working for G.E. in the 1930's Kron used Negative
Resistance circuits in equipment he designed for the U.S. navy's "Network
Analyser". Absolute Negative Resistance is - according to the laws
of nature - not possible - as it means "free energy".
What is a Negative Resistance
It is a property of an Electrical Circuit.
Which basically means that over a certain voltage range - current (that
is power or force) will decrease.
The area that is of voltage and current
decrease - is known as the "Negative Resistance area". Absolute Negative
Resistance - without any external energy source - is according to the law of nature
- Not possible - as it infringes on the fundamental law of no energy input
- no output.
Kron was apparently able to
make this possible - but was not allowed to make the details public knowledge.
example of Negative Resistance is the Ballast ( sometimes
called a Transformer ) that is used in a Fluorescent lamp. Famous inventor
and inventor of Alternating Current
widely credited for the discovery of the ( modern ) Fluorescent lamp and
knew about Negative Resistance. The Fluorescent Tube would burn out very
quickly if the current that was fed into it was not limited. The Ballast
does this - it limits the current that can go to the Tube thereby stopping
it from burning out. It is a form of
The people who met Kron and had an idea about
what he was talking about were absolutely convinced he was on the right
track. Kron personally had no idea about the real motives of Government
and Big Business. He was so involved in his own world (of Electricity and
Magnetism) that all of this (Government and Big Business motives) were of
no interest to him.
However in an amazing way Kron - with his
spellbinding way of addressing audiences - had a big impact on people who
were themselves personally involved in projects that were of a revolutionary
One such person was Floyd
Sweet who went on to develop many so called Free Energy Devices.
Floyd Sweet was - according
to some - Mentored by Gabriel Kron.
Floyd Sweet went on to claim many so called
"Over Unity" discoveries. Over Unity refers to the region where
Free Energy begins. In the Fundamental law of nature an equal amount of
power MUST be inputed to equal an output of that power. According to the
Law of Nature you cannot get an energy or power output MORE than the input.
It is simply not possible according to the so called Law of nature.
Kron's books and over 100
papers were written on weekends and at night. Gabriel Kron retired in 1966,
died from a short illness in 1968
PHILIP L. ALGER Wrote this story below on
the life and times of Gabriel Kron. From all accounts Gabriel Kron was an
amazing person who left a mark on everyone he met. Many consider him as
the most brilliant Electrical Engineer that ever lived. There is absolutely
no doubt that Gabriel Kron had a brilliant mind.
The story below is typical of the high esteem
many held of Gabriel Kron. It's an amazing story - long - but well worth
Written by PHILIP LANGDON
ALGER (1894 - 1979)
- Who was graduated from St. John's College
of Annapolis, Md., in 1912 and from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
in 1915 with a B.S. degree in electrical engineering. He earned the M.S.
degree from Union College in 1920. St. John's awarded him an honorary M.A.
in 1915, and the University of Colorado an honorary Doctor of Engineering
degree in 1969. He worked for General Electric Co. as a designing, staff,
and consulting engineer until his retirement in 1959. From 1959 to 1969
he was Consulting Professor of Electrical Engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic
Institute. The author of more than 100 technical papers and three books,
Mathematics for Science and Engineering, Induction Machines, and The Human
Side of Engineering, He edited the
book, The Life and Times of Gabriel Kron. In 1959 he received the Lamme Medal of the A.I.E.E.
1901 - 1968
Was the youngest child in a family of eight
children, was born on July 23, 1901, in Nagybanya,
later renamed Baja Mare, a town of about 10,000 people in a remote region
of the Carpathian Mountains of Hungary. His father, the owner of a dry goods
store, was a devout follower of the Jewish faith. In writing of his family
life, Kron said:
"Ever since I can remember, every night at bedtime
father used to sit at a table in the centre of the room, in front of him
a large Hebrew book, covering half the table. He sat there, slowly swaying
backward and forward, caressing with his hand his long whiskers, or pointing
with his index finger to his temple. For hours and hours he kept bowing
to and fro, reading and studying the Law in a peculiar melodious singsong
brought down through the ages.
"Every day of the year, winter and
summer, father got up at five o'clock in the morning and until six o'clock
he continued to study while I lay in bed half awake and half asleep, following
his train of thought by simply listening to the rising and falling cadence
of his tone, without understanding a single word of it. And my thoughts would slowly wander off into the land of fancy.
I saw myself climbing across the Himalayas into the forbidden land of Tibet;
I built skyscrapers in New York City or erected power plants at the foot
of Victoria Falls in Africa. As my fancy wandered from charted to uncharted
territories, I would attempt to transmit electric power without wires or
build rocket planes that could fly to the moon or distant planets. I was
a physician who discovered a remedy for some incurable disease or a physicist
who could transmute the elements."
A boyhood friend described Gabe in elementary school as
plump, always lively, always joyous, always having something to tell. He
added, "Gabe inherited the vivacity
of his character and the strength of his resolutions from his mother. When
still a boy, he formed a realist's Weltanschauung and decided the way he
should follow in life. At that time people who knew him well understood
quite clearly that for him the environment of his home town was too confined
and that a day would come when he would act to broaden his horizons."
His passion for knowledge became evident in early school
days. His teacher was accustomed to ask for drawings, and Gabe made the
greatest number of these. His drawings
were chiefly maps of different countries, taken from all the continents.
He was quite sure he would soon pay a visit to each of them. In the Gymnasium
- to people who use this word to mean
a "gym" A place of fitness training - the term also refers to
( in other countries ) : about equivalent to : High school / First college
classes - A School - Gabe studied intensively
physics and mathematics; he also devoted himself to astronomy, stenography,
and the English and German languages. At sixteen, he remarked that there
were no more books in the library for him to read. On
the lighter side, he was an editor of the school paper, and he took a leading
part in staging a most successful cabaret show.
Kron realised even in the lower grades that the Hungarian
language would be useless for one who wanted to specialise in the physical
sciences. He said in later years, "Being subjected during my life time
to several inoculations with a new language, I gradually developed a technique
of my own; that proved to be quite practical for acquiring a reading knowledge
of a new language in a place which offered no contact with people speaking
it. As young children we had been instructed in Hebrew by being handed the
Bible and asked to translate it without the aid of dictionary or grammar,
merely being told by the teacher the meaning of each word. Each of the pupils
recited and translated a verse in succession, each one thereby getting a
chance to try his knowledge and luck on the tenth or fifteenth verse. Rarely,
of course, did we follow attentively the translational efforts of the others,
and we gained only the haziest notion of any connected story.
"Ever since I was six years old I had gone through
the Bible - or a portion of it - once a year, translating it in the above
manner. When I reached age fourteen I gave up the whole struggle as hopeless
and an absolute waste of time (also because at fourteen I could resist successfully
my father's will). In the Gymnasium we were taught Latin for eight years,
German for six, and Greek for four years, each with the aid of the most
elaborate grammar the human mind could devise. Under the guise of classical
education the professors crammed our heads with an infinite variety of useless
rules, exceptions to the rules, and exceptions to the exceptions, so that
languages were the most lugubrious subjects taught....
"Realising that the manner in which languages were
taught was one of the hundred possible ways that should not be employed,
I started out to use just the opposite tactics. Instead of memorising grammar,
I memorised the German dictionary. Our school dictionary had about twenty
thousand words in it, a hundred words on a page; so, I tore out a page a
day and committed it to memory. Then the page was thrown away. When there
was no dictionary left, I considered myself an expert in the language. I
could sit down, open up a French or German book anywhere, and proceed. Slowly
and painfully at first, but nevertheless I could make headway in understanding
"It rather disappointed me to realise that familiarity
with German and French would not be of much practical use in my attempts
to relieve Europe of my presence. I sensed - in spite of the arguments of
those who had travelled far and wide - that once Europe receded behind my
back the only language that would enable me to move about freely must be
English. Unfortunately (or fortunately) no English-Hungarian dictionary
could be procured in all Transylvania, and the only one I could get hold
of was a big Muret-Sanders type of English-German dictionary, containing
over a hundred thousand words. Of course it was out of the question to repeat
the stunt of tearing out the pages and memorising them one after another,
as they contained so many archaic and technical words. What I did was to
borrow an English book, which happened to be H.G. Wells' The Food of the
Gods, and beginning with the first page I wrote out a hundred words each
day and committed them to memory. After eight or ten pages the text began
to assume more human form, and past the first chapter the content even became
Before World War I private tutoring was an old custom in
Hungary. Every well-to-do parent aspired to have his sons finish the Gymnasium,
for no one was considered a gentleman unless he graduated from the Gymnasium,
and no amount of money could compensate for the lack of this credential.
A sizable dowry, however, was sufficient to create a lady. It was not considered
proper for girls to attend the Gymnasium, so the few girls who sought an
education relied on tutors. This gave the poor boys their opportunity. Since
classes ended every day by 12 or 1 o'clock, many young men spent the afternoons
tutoring. During Kron's upper class years he used to spend from 2 to 9 or
10 o'clock each day in this way, giving on the average an hour and a half
to each pupil.
In the summer of 1918, he was invited to live with a family
in Felsöbánya, seven miles away from home, to tutor two girls.
He was so successful that he continued to live there during the eighth,
and final, year of the Gymnasium, even though he had to walk fourteen miles
each day to go to school and return.
In the fall of 1918, however,
the Rumanians took over that part of Hungary, peacefully and without ceremony,
and they turned the Gymnasium into a cavalry stable. School
stopped, and the principal advised the students to study at home and prepare
for a private examination next June. So Kron stayed at Felsöbánya,
rearranging his schedule to spend the mornings in teaching the girls while
the afternoons were devoted to his own intellectual needs. From 1 to 2 o'clock
he practised Hungarian shorthand, from 2 to 3 he solved algebra problems,
from 3 to 4 he studied French, from 4 to 5 physics, from 5 to 6 translated
German, and so on up to 10 in the evening. He was then seventeen years old.
With the closing of the Gymnasium, and the rule that the
future classes must be conducted in the Rumanian language, which he did
not know, Kron realised that his future lay in foreign lands, and the search
for that land occupied all his thoughts. His oldest brother came home from
the war, bringing fresh energy and ideas to the conduct of the family store,
so Kron hoped for a time that the family might finance his going to England
to study. But thieves broke in and robbed the store, making that plan impossible.
The Rumanian Minister of Education allowed the Gymnasium
to reopen for one month to conduct final examinations for Kron's class,
so Kron gained the coveted diploma in June 1919. He then formed a new plan.
Another older brother, Joseph, who was wounded in the war, came home with
a little money and a strong desire to gain an education. He had dropped
out of school after only four years, saying: "I am not interested in
knowing what the stars are made of." Gabriel appealed to his brother
to join him in going to America to study engineering, and he promised to
tutor the older man so that he could earn his Gymnasium diploma in a single
year. Joseph agreed and, with Gabriel's help, obtained a full set of the
books studied in the eight years of the Gymnasium, plus a permit allowing
him to take examinations whenever he was ready. Starting in late October
1919, Joe began intensive studies. Gabe selected only 10 per cent of the
pages from the books - sometimes less - and Joe learned only those. In January
Joe passed examinations for the first four grades, in April he passed the
fifth and sixth, in June the seventh, and eighth, and in August he passed
the maturity examination with a better-than-average B grade, thus earning
his diploma in record fashion.
The whole family now gave its support to the two young
men. Gabriel and Joseph Kron sailed from Antwerp on the SS Mongolia, and
in January 1921 they reached New York.
They were welcomed by the Hebrew Immigrants' Aid Society
and began at once to search for jobs.
Gabriel became a dishwasher in a Hungarian restaurant on 116th Street, earning
$5 a week and meals, working
ten hours a day, seven days a week, with one afternoon
off. Joseph found a job in a fur shop. Each evening, Joseph was expected
to memorise fifty new words from the dictionary, and both began to attend
free lectures to improve their English. Gabriel went to the public libraries
and looked up universities (a college or an Institute had no standing in
European eyes), seeking an engineering school that would cost no more than
$150 for tuition, located far enough inland to be away from the flood of
immigrants. The choice fell on the University of Michigan. He sent their
credentials to Ann Arbor, and the brothers were accepted to enter in September.
It was essential to earn more money now, so Gabriel began an intensive search
for a better job. After trials at necktie peddling, bottling vinegar, sign
painting, and steam-pressing knitted ties, he found a job as a busboy in
an Automat at $15 a week plus meals. With this princely income, and by sharing
an apartment with some Hungarian students, they bought new suits and saved
$150 each, enough to pay their carfare and the $125 tuition.
In Ann Arbor, they had first to find jobs that would pay
for food and rent. For two months they
lived on bread, milk, and grapes, but they found a
room off campus where the rent was only $3 a week, and they sold their student
football tickets for some $40. Gabriel worked for his meals, but no pay,
as a dishwasher in the Michigan Union; his brother found a job in a downtown
fur shop. In the summer Gabriel became a ditchdigger at $24 a week. Making
their way by these varied methods, they also organised their classwork to
suit their needs. While Gabriel learned the daily assignments, he underlined
the parts that his brother should study; sometimes, when Joseph worked overtime
or didn't know the answer, Gabriel answered for him - until the professors
learned to distinguish between the "Big Kron" and the "Little
Kron." The latter wrote: "As always happens when a free spirit
is obliged to undergo a prescribed routine, I wanted to study everything
except what the curriculum called for. How to find time to study what one
wishes, and not what the teacher thinks best for one's own good, must be
a perennial problem to many an anxious pupil. Finally, I hit on the idea
of arranging my schedules so that by Friday noon the classes would be all
over. Three full days then each week from Friday noon to Monday morning
I was free to pursue my own private schedule of study without the interruptions
of regular classwork. The rest of the week I considered as a sacrifice on
the altar of mechanised education."
At the beginning of his junior year, it became clear that
Gabriel Kron would complete the requirements for graduation by the next
June, so there would be no senior year for him. He began to think what to
do next, and his fancy turned to his early dreams of world travel. In the
course of his dreaming he wrote a small essay, "Out- line of a New
Cosmology," describing the universe as an engineer might have built
it, disregarding small obstacles like the law of gravitation and relativity. He showed it to a lofty professor and received
the advice: "Young man, if you want to be a scientist, never try to
introduce anything that has not been approved first by a committee of a
The head of his department invited Kron to return to Michigan
as a teacher, but he declined. And the General Electric interviewer did
not offer him a job, as he seemed not to fit any of the available openings
- he was too unique.
The more he considered it, the more he liked his old plan
of walking around the world - it would be a new type of graduate study.
The customary post-doctoral study in a German university could as well be
replaced by overnight discussions with the monks of Tibet. He announced
to his friends that he would put on a knapsack and start on foot around
the world. Who would go with him? With no takers, he put an advertisement
in the Michigan Daily, asking any one interested to telephone him. No one
called. With graduation past, he went to work for four weeks digging sewers
to earn the money needed for his world trip. After buying necessities, he
had $28 left, and on a Monday afternoon
at 3 o'clock he set out on the road to California.
The full story has been told elsewhere, so
it will suffice to sketch just an outline of his experiences.
When he reached Los Angeles he went to sleep under a eucalyptus
tree with just seven cents in his pockets. He found employment with the
U.S. Electrical Manufacturing Company, however, and began his engineering
career by designing induction motors. Soon he transferred to the Robbins
and Myers Company in Springfield, Ohio; there he worked for W. J. Branson,
who proved a most sympathetic and capable guide. (In 1938 Kron dedicated
his book, The Application of Tensors to the Analysis of Rotating Electrical
Machinery, to Branson.) But when his citizenship came through in 1926, he
started again for California. There he took passage on a tanker for Tahiti
with $300 and Forsythe's Differential Equations in his knapsack.
He lived as a guest in the family of a native in Tahiti
for some weeks, then sailed to the Fiji Islands. He walked through the back
country, shared native hospitality, swam rivers, and admired the tropical
forest. He wrote: "Paradise could not possess a more luscious and exorbitant
panorama of luxurious vegetation. Had I been a painter, I would never have
left the island [of Viti-Levu]."
In all his travels, his custom was to spend the usual siesta
hours under a tree, studying mathematics. Having finished his study of differential
equations in Fiji, he buried the Forsythe book in an empty oil can under
a large tree, dedicating it to the memory of the early missionaries who
had been eaten by the natives.
Then he took ship to Sydney, where his
money ran out, so he found a job in a one-room plant engaged in making watt-hour
meters. Kron was employed to develop a thermostat:
After working long enough to clear £35, be bought Weatherburn's book
on Vector Analysis and took to the road again, hitchiking to Townsville
in Queensland. On the way he spent many nights in the company of the "sundowners,"
the Australian tramps who lived without working, with the aid of free food
tickets handed out in police stations to anyone who needed them.
He wrote: "In those long weary walks through Queensland
and later through Asia the outlines of a many-dimensional vector analysis
began to take shape in my mind. Under the stimulation of my everyday preoccupations
with imaginary maps of unknown territories, an analogous mental picture
of engineering structures - such as an electric machine, or a bridge, or
an airplane - engraved itself in my mind. They appeared (for purposes of
analysis) as a collection of numerous multi-dimensional spaces connected
together into one unit in a manner very much as the numerous countries and
islands and continents are interlinked by a web of roads and customs and
"If communication between the various members disappears,
nothing physical is lost, only that intangible something that transforms
the forty-eight independent states into a single U.S.A., or the many thousand
independent parts into a single airplane. Years later I discovered that
mathematicians had already laid a firm foundation under the name Tensor
Analysis for just such a type of calculus as I attempted to develop."
Kron sailed from Townsville to Borneo, and thence to Manila,
Hongkong, and Saigon. Here, he started out on foot to Angkor Vat, and walked
on to Aranha, where he took a train for Bangkok, then joined a caravan that
followed the ancient trade route to Cockrake in Burma. He walked to Rangoon,
took a boat to Calcutta, walked on to Agra, where he admired the Taj Mahal.
He crossed the Indian desert to Karachi by train, took a boat across the
Persian Gulf and went on by train to Baghdad, stopping to see the ruins
of Ur on the way. He spent $5 for a truck ride across the Arabian desert
to Damascus, then set out on foot again to Gaza. He hastened on to Cairo
by train, saw the Pyramids, sailed from Alexandria to Constantinople and
went by train to Bucharest, arriving at midnight at the home of a friend,
with just small change left in his pockets. After an all-night talk, the
friend financed his ticket to Baja Mare, where his parents welcomed him.
The neighbours wanted to know why he
had come home from America with his toes sticking out of his shoes, while
every one else came home rich.
one asked about his travels.
Kron spent several months at home, studying
and also courting his future wife, Ann, before returning to the United States.
He took a job with the Lincoln Electric Company in Cleveland in the fall
of 1928, and in 1930 he presented the first of his more than a hundred technical
That first paper, entitled "Generalised Theory of
Electrical Machinery," was the beginning of his series of papers presenting
more and more comprehensive analysis of machines and systems. He thought
that all types of electric machines must be special cases of a Generalised
machine, and that understanding the general machine would lead to the invention
of new types. After transferring to the Westinghouse Company in Springfield,
he presented his second A.I.E.E. paper in 1931. It explained the effects
on induction motor torque due to field harmonics (superposed multipolar
fields) in the air gap. Since my 1920 Union College thesis dealt with the
same topics, I was much interested and took part in the discussion of Kron's
paper. This was the beginning of a friendship that kept us in close touch
for more than thirty years.
In 1931 he accepted an invitation to join
Warner Brothers to design phonograph motors, with a three-year contract
at $10,000 a year. The Depression forced the closing
of his department, however, and for some two years he had a fine salary
with no duties to perform. He resolved to devote this free time to study
that would lead to a much better job after the Depression and, meanwhile,
to economise by living at home in Baja Mare. So he and Ann returned to Rumania
for a year. He read widely in the field of mathematics, becoming familiar
with tensor analysis and Non-Riemannian geometry for the first time. Seeing
an analogy between these abstruse concepts and the complex interrelations
of electric, magnetic, and mechanical forces in machines, he wrote his classic
paper on the "Non-Riemannian Dynamics of Rotating Electrical Machinery,"
which won for him the Montefiore Prize from the University of Liege in 1935.
He sent me a copy of this paper in 1933, when he returned to the U.S., and
I was so impressed by it that I sent it to my friend, Professor Philip Franklin,
of the Mathematics Department at M.I.T., who was the Editor of the M.I.T.
Journal of Mathematics and Physics. 'He published the paper in full in the
May 1934 issue of the M.I.T. Journal.
The paper instantly produced
wide-spread discussion and controversy. Working alone, applying mathematical
concepts in ways never done before, Kron gave new meanings to terms and
disregarded established rules, so that many mathematicians derided his work:
it was just for show, it was needlessly complex, or it was of no practical
use. When he first put his ideas forward, there were no large computers,
and engineers were little concerned with systems, so it took some years
for their value to be appreciated.But Kron's theories, derived largely by intuition,
have been proved sound and are increasingly useful. Instead of calculating
the effects of changes A, B, and C separately, and then finding that each
change required the others to be recalculated, Kron's methods take all the
interrelations into account at once, thus opening the way to correct analysis
of the most complex systems.
To throw more light on the new ideas, I
arranged an A.I.E.E. conference in January 1934, in New York, at which Kron
presented his views to interested engineers and some pure mathematicians.
He did so well there that I urged General Electric to employ him. After checking with his Michigan professor, A.D.
Moore, and others, Vice President Roy C. Muir invited Gabe to join the staff
of the Advanced Engineering Program, under
A.R. Stevenson, Jr., in May 1934. He
did so, and began at once to extend
and deepen his studies of electric machines, power systems, and computers.
The results poured forth in five books and a hundred technical papers during
the next thirty years.
The Advanced Engineering Program staff
at that time included the mathematicians E.0. Keller and H. Poritsky; a
very distinguished engineer, C.A. Nickle; and
a young engineer who gained distinction later on, Loyal V. Bewley. Bewley
was a graduate of the first class of the Advanced Engineering Program, who
took a deep interest in the ideas put forward by Kron. In later years Bewley criticised Kron's writings, saying that
he used too many words, did not make his points clear, and made simple things
appear complicated. However, this may be, Kron was too absorbed in pursuing
his own widening train of thought to be interested in backtracking or in
refining his earlier work. He was a pioneer, not an educator: He used to
imply that hard work is required for mastery of any subject, and it does
no good to make the way to understanding too easy. He was doing the really
hard work of breaking trail, and those who came after him could follow well
enough if they were truly capable. He told me at one time that he felt as
if he would burst - so many books were welling up inside him, calling for
him to move on to unexplored fields.
One difficulty was that Kron always wanted to have his
theories apply widely - he always wanted to generalise. Thus his methods
were more complex than required for any particular problem. They could be
used for a wide variety of problems, but the engineer who was concerned
only with a particular machine preferred to use the simplest methods and
took little interest in Kron's elegant theories.
Stevenson left Kron to pursue his own ideas
but kept him in contact with the students in the program.
Kron was a great talker
and could hold his audience spellbound, whether or not they understood him.
In this way, he inspired many students to think more broadly.
One student in particular, Charles
Concordia, began to apply Kron's ideas to practical
purposes. After finishing the course, Concordia went into the Apparatus
Sales Department, where he worked on problems
of power supply and transmission. In considering extensive
power networks, with large numbers of supply stations and load centers,
he felt the need for more general methods. To help in power system analysis,
Kron also transferred there in 1939. As computers became available,
Concordia and Kron established the modern methods
of electrical distribution system analysis now used today throughout the
1908 - 2003
Regarded as the the most
knowledgeable person ever in Electrical Network Distribution Engineering
and Analysis. Charles Concordia won many Awards over the years and was very
widely known and respected. He is probably the best known person in the
field of Electricity Network Distribution.
Charles Concordia wrote
many papers on Electrical Engineering Topics - Many related to Electricity
Supply Network Distribution. He worked for G.E for over 30 Years and contributed
a great deal.
He was called upon when major
Electricity Distribution problems occurred - To try and pin point what went
wrong and make provisions to prevent future problems.
Like Gabriel Kron - Charles
Concordia was a Legend - and a leader in his field.
was awarded the IEEE Medal of Honour in 1999 which is the greatest
recognition given to anyone. This honour is given to people who have
acheived the highest honour in their field of engineering.
Kron spent nights and weekends pursuing his own thoughts.
The results appeared in an extensive series of articles published in the
G. E. Review between 1936 and 1942. He also kept in touch with graduates
of the Advanced Engineering Program who had gone to work in various departments
of the Company, and helped them in many ways, particularly by developing
correct equivalent circuits for all kinds of machines and systems. These
were published in his third book, Equivalent Circuits of Electric Machinery,
in 1951. His first two books, Tensor Analysis of Networks and A Short Course
in Tensor Analysis for Electric Engineers, appeared in 1939 and 1940, respectively.
In 1942 Kron transferred
to the Large Steam Turbine Engineering Department, to work on problems of
stress analysis in complex steel structures. Then he moved again, to work
on electronics with Simon Ramo. And, in 1945, he moved to the Research Laboratory,
where he worked on the temperature distribution and control of piles for
atomic reactors, and other abstruse problems. In 1950, he returned to work
for Selden Crary on power systems, where his ideas proved to be most useful,
employing the large computers then becoming available. One of his associates
wrote two books solidly based on Kron's work that tell how to use computers
to control the distribution of electric power in large systems.
Kron spent the years between 1953 and 1963 in laboratory
and turbine assignments. In 1963 he joined the Analytical Engineering Division;
there he became closely associated with Harvey H. Happ, the editor of this
book, who expanded and applied his work to power system problems. Kron retired
in 1966 at the age of 65. Kron told me that Happ was his interpreter in
electrical engineering, who had his entire confidence. With Kron's encouragement,
Happ has written a book that presents the foundations of Diakoptics.
During all the years, as
Kron moved around the company, he worked at night and on weekends on many,
many ideas, often far removed from his assigned tasks and beyond the understanding
of his associates.
As his daughter wrote: "His evenings, his free time,
were all spent at his desk in the dining room. - Almost every time he went
to a movie, he'd impatiently leave the theatre part way through the picture,
and walk home. - Even though he was in the theatre physically, he rarely
paid attention to the movie dialogue, and throughout the evening every time
the audience reacted, daddy would have to ask mother what was happening.
I used to pretend I wasn't related to that curious couple next to me whose
whispered summary of the plot in Hungarian punctuated the silence around
During these years, he kept up an extensive correspondence
with students who asked about his papers and with friends and admirers around
Many students said their success in pursuing
graduate education was due to Kron's urging. In England and Japan, especially,
his ideas were pursued, forming the basis for many papers. On hearing of
Kron's death, Dr. Kazuo Kondo wrote: "If
I count scientific friends whom I miss for the rest of my life, Kron comes first. For many years I dreamed of meeting him. Whether it would be in the U.S.A.
or in Japan, I was uncertain about. He was once expected to visit Japan
as a Fulbright scholar. However, to our disappointment it was not realised.
In Europe I followed Kron's traces in London and Kent as well as in Liege,
where he had been awarded the Montefiore Prize. It was in my plan to find
an opportunity to call on him in Schenectady. But, alas! America without
him seems to lose its charm to lure me."
Kron was a puzzle to the company executives who were responsible
for his assignments. They wanted to tell him what to do, and to put him
in a place where his talents would yield immediate, commercially useful
results, and to adjust his salary accordingly. This was difficult, because Kron's value was largely in the inspiration
he gave to others and in distant objectives that seemed
to business managers to be merely dreams. As they tried to make the best
use of him, he was shifted hither and yon. In all, he worked for fifteen
different managers while with GE. This contrasts with the treatment of Steinmetz,
under E.W. Rice. Steinmetz was retained in a staff position and problems
were brought to him, instead of moving him to where the new problems were.
Thus Steinmetz became known as the "Supreme Court" of the company,
and he wrote and lectured freely on whatever topics interested him. Kron
had to pursue his own ideas outside of office hours.
This was no real hardship, however, as the company did
give Kron complete freedom to publish his ideas, and to maintain contacts
with a wide circle of interested men, outside as well as inside the company.
Some commercial men, who did not like
the engineers to talk about new developments, said that it would do no harm
for Kron to write, as no competitor would understand him anyway.
This very point, that his writings were
voluminous, and not too clear, was a prime reason for the controversies
that always swirled about him. Some who penetrated the depths of his thoughts
felt that they could say it more clearly. Others found mistakes in his proofs,
or things that he omitted, and many of these published their views. Some
belittled Kron, others ignored him or claimed as their own ideas he had
developed. Kron felt all these slights keenly. As any one must be who pursues
a lonely road, he was sustained by a sense of mission and by an inner conviction
that he was rendering a great service to the engineers who would come after
him. Some of his critics felt that he was just plain conceited. After all,
it is hard to draw a line between sublime confidence that one is right,
even though much of the world denies it, and the misguided idea that some
foolish idea is important.
Time has shown, however, that Kron was
almost always right in his conclusions, even though some of his proofs were
faulty. He had a remarkable intuition, an unerring sense of the fitness
of things prescribed by nature, that led him without fail to the right results. And he had a delightful sense of humor that enabled him to shake
off the hard feelings aroused by critics. He was very much like his critics.
Some one told Kron that his writings were too complex. "No," said
Kron , "perhaps the reader's mind is too simple."
After retirement, Kron continued to work on
his theories, with the conviction that he must write several more books,
especially on the crystal computer that he thought would be his crowning
Just a few days before the
onset of his fatal illness, He told his wife, " My work is so beautiful that I wouldn't give it away for
a million dollars."
He died, after a short illness,
on March 25, 1968.